LINA01 Oct. 4
Difference between [Ə] (schwa) and [ ∧ ] (caret)
No difference in sound
Only shows stress
Every word has a primary stress
Only vowels can be stressed
but butter Canada
[bƏt] [bƏttƏr] [k ænƏdƏ]
[bƏt] (stress) [bƏttƏr] (stress) [k ænƏdƏ] (no stress)
[b∧t] [b∧ttƏr] [k ænƏdƏ] (so no caret)
[o] or [ow]? [e] or [ej]?
In Canadian English, [ej] can be a dipthong.
boat, can be bait
[bot] or [bowt] [bejt] or [bet]
They are both right.
[o] before [r]?
When [o] is before [r] you do not get a glide so you can transcribe it as [o].
elbow [ow] Oscar [a] pour [o] own [ow]
The study of structures and patterning of speech sounds
Phonetics vs. Phonology
The study of the physical The mental reality of
properties of speech speech sounds:
sounds: how they are subconscious knowledge
produced; what their possessed by native
acoustic properties are speakers about
like; how the human generalizations and
auditory system works patterning in speech
sounds LINA01 Oct. 4
Segments in Contrast
Segments are said to be in contrast (distinctive, opposition) in a particular language
when their presence alone may distinguish forms with different meanings from each
[s] vs. [z] sip zip
Segments that contrast with each other in a particular language are said to be
phonemes of the language. These are unique to a language
/p/ pit to /b/ bit
/t/ tin to /d/ din
/f/ fat to /v/ vat
Minimal Pair Test
When studying phonology of a language, establish segmental controls. Minimal pair
tests consist of two forms with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found
in the same position in each form.
Finding minimal pairs
[w] & [j] yell & well
[aj] & [aw] high & how
[ŋ] & [m] bong & bomb
Near Minimal Pairs
If you can’t find a minimal pair because the language just doesn’t have words matching
a particular shape. This means looking for a near minimal pair.
words that have segments with words that are similar but not exactly the same.
Whether two segments contrast is determined on a language-particular basis.
Acquisition of Contrast
Babies can hear contrast in words
o Babies are born with the ability to learn any language
o Lose that ability once they begin to learn one specific language at
approximately 12 months. LINA01 Oct. 4
[l] and [r] are contrastive in English
lake vs. rake