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Lecture 4

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Chandan Narayan

LINA01 Oct. 4 Difference between [Ə] (schwa) and [ ∧ ] (caret)  No difference in sound  Only shows stress  Every word has a primary stress  Only vowels can be stressed but butter Canada h [bƏt] [bƏttƏr] [k ænƏdƏ] h [bƏt] (stress) [bƏttƏr] (stress) [k ænƏdƏ] (no stress) h [b∧t] [b∧ttƏr] [k ænƏdƏ] (so no caret) [o] or [ow]? [e] or [ej]? In Canadian English, [ej] can be a dipthong. boat, can be bait [bot] or [bowt] [bejt] or [bet] They are both right. [o] before [r]? When [o] is before [r] you do not get a glide so you can transcribe it as [o]. elbow [ow] Oscar [a] pour [o] own [ow] Phonology The study of structures and patterning of speech sounds Phonetics vs. Phonology The study of the physical The mental reality of properties of speech speech sounds: sounds: how they are subconscious knowledge produced; what their possessed by native acoustic properties are speakers about like; how the human generalizations and auditory system works patterning in speech sounds LINA01 Oct. 4 Segments in Contrast Segments are said to be in contrast (distinctive, opposition) in a particular language when their presence alone may distinguish forms with different meanings from each other.  [s] vs. [z] sip zip Segments that contrast with each other in a particular language are said to be phonemes of the language. These are unique to a language  /p/ pit to /b/ bit  /t/ tin to /d/ din  /f/ fat to /v/ vat Minimal Pair Test When studying phonology of a language, establish segmental controls. Minimal pair tests consist of two forms with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found in the same position in each form. Finding minimal pairs [w] & [j] yell & well [aj] & [aw] high & how [ŋ] & [m] bong & bomb Near Minimal Pairs If you can’t find a minimal pair because the language just doesn’t have words matching a particular shape. This means looking for a near minimal pair.  words that have segments with words that are similar but not exactly the same. Language-specific contrasts Whether two segments contrast is determined on a language-particular basis. Acquisition of Contrast  Babies can hear contrast in words o Babies are born with the ability to learn any language o Lose that ability once they begin to learn one specific language at approximately 12 months. LINA01 Oct. 4 [l] and [r] are contrastive in English  lake vs. rake In Japanes
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