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Chapter 14.docx

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Chapter 14Language in social contextsspeech communitya group of people who share social conventions or sociological norms about language usesalientnoticeable particular social meaningmarkersindicatorsother features associated with particular social characteristicsmutual intelligibilitycriterion that linguistics use to determine whether people are speaking the same language or notsystematic differences in speech reflect different dialects nonstandardsubsets of the same languagestandardthe language taught in school used in formal writingvarietyavoids the naming problem as a valueneutral term for any subset of languageslangnonstandard varietiesaccentpronunciation 141 Language variation and social distinctionsvariationist sociolinguistics branch of linguistics that tries to measure and explain the connection between social and linguistic distinctions o central to this practice is the concept of structured variation o variablethe thing with several possible realizations eg brother brudderphonemeunderlying representationeach possible realization interdental fricative stop labiodental etc is called a variantallophonessurface realizationsdepends on linguistic factors such as position in the word voicing etcphonetic environments o rules are categorical applied every time o rules or constraints are usually probabilistic more or less likely to apply o social factors variation within individual speakersintraspeaker variation o how speech varies according to speakers social characteristicsinterspeaker variationMethod variationist sociolinguistics 1 Find the speech communityinformantsconsultantspeople from the speech community who are willing to be recorded 2 Collect datasociolinguistic interviews questions that encourage informants to forget they are being recorded 3 Analyze the data collectedvariables that are gradient have a range of values 142 Placedialectologythe study of regional differences in language
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