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Lecture 8

Notes for lecture eight of Second Language Acquisition

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Rena Helms- Park

PLIB25 Lecture 8Transfer Linguistic Markedness in these cases implicational markedness based on typological studies o Henry gave Liza a book of poemsmarked o Henry gave a book of poems to Lizaunmarked o What did Liza fill the bucket withmarked o With what did Liza fill the bucketunmarkedNot everything is transferredWhat is transferred easily is what is considered unmarked by the learnerThe learners decision corresponds quite closely to linguists in terms of what is unmarkedMarked implies unmarkedUnmarked does not imply marked Caveat ie be careful Ambiguity How do we know that it is transfer and not the default structureconstruction at the initial stage of acquisition o Learners learn the uncomplicated stuff first o Learners transfer the unmarked readily will not transfer unmarked Typological Universals Typologicalstudying as many languages as you can possibly find and say what structures are frequent and infrequentWhat are typological universals o Different from Chomskian universals because Chomsky looks at 1 or 2 languages whereas typological universals look at hundreds o Chomsky looks at the abstract properties intensely studies 1 or 2 languages o Some are just tendenciesUniversalabsoluteTendencymostly soWhat is one major difference between how linguists working on language typology go about identifying universals and how those in UG circles do thisMany typological universals are universals others are strong tendenciesUniversal o VSOall VSO languages have prepositions as well as SVO the preposition comes before the noun phrase o SOVpostpositions page 192 example 76 not on the table but table on seen in Japanese and HindiStrong tendency o SVOpostnominal adjectives adjective occurs after the noun postnominal genitives examples 71 72 73 717 718 o But consider Englishit messes things up
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