Representation: the act of putting ideas into words, visuals, audio, or any other medium of communication, simplifies and interprets the object or event being described, receiver must decode or interpret the communication to understand the idea. Icon (or an iconic sign): a sign that looks like the object it represents (e. g . Index (or indexical sign): a sign that is related to the object it represents (e. g. smoke: fire, or a photo: symbol (or symbolic sign): a sign that has no direct resemblance to the object it represents (e. g. Name: the actual person, or written language itself) arbitrary- no necessary connection between the object and name. Intertextuality: our interpretation of a sign depends on the meanings we have drawn from other sets of signs, polysemy, signs have more than one meaning and are open to a variety of interpretations. Polyvalence- polyvalent text- encoding or production, text can be encoded with multiple meanings, intentionally.