Marked by the development of gutenberg"s printing press (1454) . The reformation and counter-reformation (biggest ramification in european perspective) Martin luther criticized the catholic church and advocated a more individual relationship with. In today, this changed (look at the cultural changes that emerged = renaissance era) The innovation of moveable type, and what this meant for publishing, distribution of written material, and how it contributed to a wider availability of literacy (ability to the middle ages - helped educate people) Printing presses disseminated ideas and spread literacy, with social ramifications. New ideas from other regions could lead to social change and destabilization. Printing of the bible made it more accessible to people, weakening the power of the church. Witnessed the rise of humanist ideas (circulation of new ideas helped established a new cultural and social foundation for merging modern society) Revolutionary moments were met with a conservative backlash.