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MDA02 ch 2 - PRINTING.docx

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Media Studies
Ted Petit

MDA02: CHAPTER 2 – Printing  Printing enabled mass education, began mass communication and publication created a sense of “the public” A Chinese Invention  Wherever printing has gone it has been followed by censorship and propaganda  1486 – censorship of the printed work can be traced to Archbishop Berthold von Henneberg in the same German city where Gutenberg had his printing shop o He did not invent printing, before him ppl were carving things into wood, clay etc o He didn’t invent the printing press…he came up with a superior printing press that used hard metal punches to make soft lead type of a precise height and an oil based ink that stuck to the type -> he began the process that moved the world into the Modern age  He must’ve known something about block printing  Missionaries and other travelers who returned to Europe w/ news of the Chinese invention of paper may have reported a greater number of books were printed in china  Europe at the time was a diffusion of kingdoms and baronies but merchants still looked for trade and beaurocrats needed records o Printing came – first efficient way to spread info beyond the range of human voice o Organized mail serviced took root, universities were more available, students sought books Early Printing in Europe  Before Gutenberg’s printing press, most books in Europe were written in Latin and unavailable to an illiterate public  Info came from preachers or balladeers = If something written needed to be revealed, on person could real aloud to others (usually a local priest, monks)  Stained glass church windows carried the only history most ppl knew about  At the time book production existed in Europe was copied by hand, line after line Printing and Literacy  Modern age – growth of literacy [printing + literacy came hand to hand]  Cheap books were coming off the press so a reading public grew  Printed books were smaller than manuscripts, easier to read printed texts promoted silent and quicker reading – allowed people privacy and quiet (esp w/ the invention of the chimney which heated private rooms)  More merchants and artisans learned to read o Merchants (middle class) arose to claim its place in society, ad literacy was a useful tool – they took their children to school and stayed to learn themselves  When feudalism was dying out, birth didn’t dictate who sat in city govn’t, instead ability to read and write had more power  The nobility insisted that their authority was a right bestowed by god – they made sure their sons became educated The Reformation  Before Gutenberg, books were costly – copying was careless and libraries were small and private  The church controlled nearly all education and was a tool used to spread faith  The pivotal religious movement was the Protestant Reformation, 16t c. as an effort to reform the dominant roman catholic church, martin Luther made effective use of Gutenberg’s invention o Pamphlets and posters were becoming widespread through the country from his campaign 1 Martin Luther  He translated the new testament into German vernacular so ordinary ppl can understand it.  Gutenberg’s invention allowed for 20 translations of the bible  By the end of the 16 c, the separation of many Christians from the established church had taken root  this led to new protestant faith throughout Europe The Renaissance  Another great movement arose at the same time as the reformation  The renaissance introduced the classical literature of Greece and Rome to a western Europe that had been unaware of the ancient books  The spread of secular books and humanism led to a new division from the Church, quite diff from the Reformation  Access to the books stimulated individual scholarship  Inductive reasoning, ancient literature, secular moral thinking and political awareness of classical Greece further demarcated the Modern Age from the middle ages  @ this time, explorers voyaged to Asia, Africa and the new world, where for good or ill they set down roots o Printers produced engraved maps and geography texts; written tales of voyage gave ppl excitement  Some brought back a knowledge of astronomy, geo, medicine, mathematics + philosophy  Technologies newly invented/discovered from distant lands were described: the water wheel for driving forge hammers, flour mills and mechanical saws, crane and paper  Medieval alchemy reluctantly gave way to authentic scientific inquiry  the intellectual ferment would lead in th th the 17 & 18 c to the enlightenment, a revolution in human thought w/ a focus on the here, not the hereafter  Literacy enabled ppl to think rationally and conclude that change is possible  Printing would make the scientific revolution possible  Printing and Languages  Printing provided a sense of nationalism – once it was put in printing, it was more fixed w/ distinctive structures  Communication media became an element of all wars  Albert Einstein pointed out that the printing of music notation created a music revolution – a visual representation of melody became the foundation of notation Printing and Freedom  In the U.S. the bill of rights was being compromised by federalists and democrats – the very first of its amendments called for freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, the right to assembly and the right to petition the govt  Newspaper attacks against opposing politicians were used as principle tools of persuasion in resolving the many issues that confronted the vigorous new nation  Congress passed the Alien and Sediation Acts threatening 2 yrs imprisonment and $2000 fine for anyone who would “write, print, utter or publish any false, scandalous and malicious writing” against the govnt  Jefferson never abandoned the principle of a free press although in the years to come, he grew sick of the lying and culminating of the federalist press that opposed him o It built up its industry and divided into 2 bitter warring camps, north and south The Industrial Revolution
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