First cluster: the gendered body
1. biological vs cultural definitions of gender
2. the body as a social construction (health and sexuality)
3. different explanations of violence (essentialist, psychological, feminist, intersectional)
Second thematic cluster: Representations
1. Interpreting gender (as a role, as something we “do”, as an ideology, as a performance).
2. The media and popular culture (representing the feminine, representing the masculine).
3. Words and images (how gender is constructed through language and how gender can be de-
constructed through feminist interventions, literature, art).
*New (3rd) thematic cluster:
GENDER EQUITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
1. Gender equality within social institutions: gendered family, gendered classroom & gendered
2. Intersecting systems of oppression
What is the role of an "institution"?
1.contribute to maintaining and strengthening the (often unequal) social structure.
2.Ensure compliance with power structures (legitimizing power).
3.Ensure the transmission of value systems.
Institutions and hegemonic masculinity
inance over women is institutionalized through particular practices and represents
a “collective strategy” (Connell).
Institutions and emphasized femininity
-stroking”, acceptance of marriage and childcare, adaptability (Connell).
The family as an economic unit
1.Breadwinner vs homemaker.
2.Childrearing: traditionally done by mothers.
3.Domestic (unpaid) work – Women spend more hours/week than men on house work, childcare
and eldercare, although men’s participation in housework is increasing (Men: 2.1 hours/day in
1986 to 2.5 in 2001. Women: 4.8 in 1986 to 4.2 in 2001 - StatsCan)
4.“Emotion work” (Hochschild) is usually unreported.
Critique of the traditional family 1.Men’s appropriation of women’s labour (Delphy). Delphy, C.(1984). Close to Home: A