Emphasizes how things should be
These two categories don’t exist outside of the representation itself.
“There is no reality outside of representation” Essentially what we consider the
ideal of life and negative points of life are in many ways constructed by the ads,
they tell us what we should be disatisfyed with and what we should hope for.
Cultural Shift in how we define self worth:
Lyres Theraputic Ethic: “Shift in societ y from defining one self from things like
protestant work ethic etc, things like self deniable than shifts for to defining
our selves by things, individual wish fulfillment” Move from careful spending
and hard work, to a life of spending= better life quicker. “Buying has become a
way of satisfying our emotional needs” Paradox: If system always supports
dissatisfaction, than if we used shopping to satisfy emotions, building self
worth, then we have to construct a way that these things will never be fulfill.
Must find a way of keeping everyone needing more so they by more. So
therapeutic ethic will never be satisified.
Planned obsolecense: creating new anxieties and disatifications.
Stuart Ewen: Commodity Self: We tend to define self worth in part through the
consumption of goods.
Buying is presented as a way of giving our lives meaning. Our
subjectivities sense of self are mediated and constructed by ads.
We become defined as how other people see you and that we do
Mystification of how things are vs. how they appear to be
Process of giving special powers to something
Contrast between message and idea as well as the realities that get
Distinction he draws between strategies and tactics:
Strategies: practices by which dominant inst seek to structure lives of
their below. (tv makes them by into shows and ads, planned
Tactics are the practices employed by
those not in powers, that gain some control over their practices. (i.e. pvr
Ads use broad range of voices, a particular tone in an ad. (artist, science,
etc) that give a stylistic or visual tone to the ad. Can be important to
whether or not we buy into ad or product.
Signifier- word sound image (I.e. Image of the car)
Signified element of meaning underneath that sign (speed youth weatlth) Dog is not the animal, it’s the signifier, stands in for animal. Signifies safety
Distance between signified and signifier.
Denotation: literal or face value meaning of a sign. (i.e. rose= denotation is
Connotation: Adds social, historical, cultural meaning to denotation. Relies on
context, experience to decipher. (i.e. rose= sign of romance, stands in for love,
Watch for this today:
Repeative Motif- Gets meaning not from single ad but from multiple (i.e. use
recongnize motif of absolut vodka, prolific, makes a brand rather than product.)
(I.e. Got Milk Campaign- selling generic product. Uses diff celelbs with milk
mustache to promote milk consumption. Gives milk which is boring bland a
glamour, hipness. Having a milk stache is something to be proud of.)
Metonymy- General association of one sign to another.
(i.e. celebrity to milk)
Repetition of slogan and style, motif, reaffirms product between what is
familiar and what is new.
Ads have presumption of two things being relevant to one another. Related or