LEC 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

LEC 4: SIMILAR TO ME EFFECT-important fact about social perception -ppl like those who are similar to themselves -car sales representative: can dealer tried to say something similar to you -their response will influence your decisions Build up similarities even when there are no similarities SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY -ppl form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories -our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity Personal identity is based on our unique characteristics (ex. Interests) Social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (ex. Gender) -Help to answer the question “who am I?” -we perceive ourselves and others as embodying the most typical attributes of a category or what we called “prototypes” -social identities are relational and comparative -ppl tend to perceive members of their social categories in more positive and favorable ways BRUNER’S MODEL OF THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS -When the perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the info cues in the target and situation -perceiver will actively seek out cues to resolve ambiguity -as the perceiver encounters some familiar cues, a crude categorization of the target is made -search for cues then becomes less open and more selective -perceiver will search for cues that confirm the categorization of the target -as the categorization becomes stronger, the perceiver will ignore or even distort cues that violate initial perceptions You got more info- you made judgment about that person -ignore new info; keep reminding yourself the old image of the person -First impression determine the target person that we are going to perceive -average of 7 seconds an impression is formed from a job interview -selecting cues: pay attention to cues that are consistent -keep perception for a very long time PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY -the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time and across situations -“getting off on the wrong foot” -the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues so that they fit together to form a homogenous picture of the target -we strive for consistency in our perception of people PRIMACY AND RECENCY EFFECTS -the reliance on early cues or first impressions is known as the primary effect -primacy often has a lasting impact -the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions is known as the recency effect Primary effect: early cues/ first impression Recency effect: recent cues/ last impression Job Interview Situation: usually depends on the structure of the interview A, B, C, D, E (evaluate after each candidate, then the first person has an advantage) A B C D E (evaluate after ALL candidate, then the last person has an advantage) RELIANCE ON CENTRAL TRAITS -People tend to organize their perceptions around central traits -central traits are personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver -central traits often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others -physical appearance is a common central trait in work settings -conventionally attractive ppl fare better than unattractive ppl in terms of a variety of job-related outcomes (ex. getting hired) -physical height is an obvious aspect of physical appearance that is related to job performance, promotions, and career success -individuals who are overweight tend to be evaluated negatively on a number of workplace outcomes IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORIES -personal theories that ppl have about which personality characteristics go together -perhaps you expect hardworking ppl to also be honest, or people of average intelligence to be most friendly -if such implicit theories are inaccurate, they provide a basis for misunderstanding -“slow”=”stupid” PROJECTION -tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others -in some cases, projection is an efficient and sensible perceptual strategy -projection can lead to perceptual difficulties and can serve as a form of perceptual defense -project personality into other person STEREOTYPING -tendency to generalize about ppl in a social category and ignore variation s among them -categories on which ppl might base a stereotype include race, age, gender, ethnic background, social class, and occupation 3 specific aspects: - Distinguish some category of ppl - Assume individuals in this category have certain traits - Perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits -ppl can evoke stereotypes with incredibly little info -Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets -most stereotypes are inaccurate, especially when we use them to develop perceptions of specific individuals Attribution-the process by which we assign causes or motives to explain ppl’s behavior Dispositional Attribution-intelligence, greed, friendliness, laziness Situational Attribution-bad weather, go
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