LEC 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

LEC 5: VALUE -A board tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others -values have to do with what we consider good and bad -values are motivational and very general -ppl tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare Traditionalists (1922-1945)-respectful of authority and a high work ethic Baby Boomers (1946-1964)-optimistic workaholics Generation X (1965-1980)-cynical, confident, and pragmatic Millennials (generation Y) (1981-2000)-confident, social, demanding of feedback, somewhat unfocused -More similarities than differences GEN. X and Y inclined to value status Gen Y value autonomy Gen X is less loyal, wanting promotion, work-life balance -there are basic differences in work-related values across culture -lack of understanding of cross-cultural differences can cause foreign assignments to terminate early and business negotiations to fail HOFSTEDE’S STUDY Geert Hofstede discovered 4 basic dimensions along with work-related values differed across cultures: 1. Power distance 2. Uncertainty avoidance 3. Masculinity/ femininity 4. Individualism/ collectivism 5. Long-term/ short-term orientation ( eastern culture) Power distance -the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members -in small power distance cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, and power differences are downplayed -in large power distance cultures, inequality is accepted as natural, superiors are inaccessible, and power differences are highlighted -Canada and US rank 14 and 15, low power distance Uncertainty Avoidance -the extent to which ppl are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations -strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security -weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity, and security, hard work is not seen as a virtue and risk taking is valued -Canada and US are below average Masculinity/ Femininity -masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support dominance of men, and stress economic performance -feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality -Japan, Austria, Mexico, Venezela (Masculine) -Scandinavian countries are most feminine -CA ranks about mid-pack and US is fairly masculine falling about halfway b/w CA and JP Individualism/ Collectivism -individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy -collective cultures favor interdependence and loyalty to family or clan -US, Australia, UK, CA (Individualistic) -Venezuela, Columbia, Pakistan (Collective) -Japan falling about mid-pack Long-term/ Short-term Orientation -cultures with a long-term orientation stress persistence, perseverance, thrift and close attention to status differences -cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties -CN, HK, TW,JP, KR (long-term) -CA, US (short-term) An Attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistency to some specific object, situation, person, or category of ppl Attitudes are tendencies to respond to target of attitude Attitude  Behavior Belief + Value = Attitude  Behavior JOB SATISFACTION AND ITS DETERMINANTS JS is a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs: Facet Job Satisfaction Overall Job Satisfaction Facet Job Satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisficed: -work itself -compensation -career opportunities -recognition -benefits Job Descriptive Index (JDI) -“yes”, “no”, “?” in describing whether a particular work or phrase is descriptive of particular facets of their jobs Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) -how happy on a scale ranging from “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied” 1. Discrepancy 2. Fairness 3. Disposition 4. Emotion Discrepancy- b/w job outcomes wanted and outcomes that are perceived to be obtained -strong evidence that satisfaction with one’s pay is high when there is a small gap b/w the pay received and the percept
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