Class Notes (839,472)
Canada (511,349)
MGHB02H3 (88)

Chapter 4

6 Pages

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Craig Weaver

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Nagative reinforcement goes further – If you clean your room, you can go out and do whatever Punishment – doing something to someone that they don’t like – You’re grounded b/c you didn’t clean your room Variable – more powerful – positive reinforcement Ch 4  VALUES • A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. - Have to do with what we consider good or bad - How we believe we should or should not behave - Broad – cant be applied to specific situations o Ex: autonomy, power, conformity, tradition, social welfare, achievement Cultural differences – Hotsead Europe – for a year, observed everywhere , travelled the world • Wanted to know how cultures differ in terms of how they differ • 5 themes o Pg 123 – 5 bullet points – EXAM 1. Power Distance • Extent to which people are okay with power inequality • How comfortable you are w. authority o Small- minimized, superiors accessible, power diff down played o Large- Inequality accepted, superiors inaccessible, power diff highlighted 2. Uncertainty/Avoidance • Extent to which ppl are UNCOMORTABLE w. uncertain and ambiguous situations • Some cultures value ambiguity • What is the degree – see it as an opportunity or threat o Strong – value conformity, rules, hard work structure o Weak – value risk taking, less rules, hard work not virtue 3. Masculinity/Fem • Masculine cultures o clearly differentiate b/w gender roles , o support male dominance, o stress economic performance  i.e. Japan, US • Feminine culture o Accept fluid gender roles, o Stress equality o Stress quality of life  i.e. European  Canada middle • South Africa – women not treated fairly • Sweden and Norway – more feminine 4. Individualism/Collectivisim • Individualistic: o Stress independence, individual initiative & privacy  i.e. Canada & US • Collectivistic: o Favour interdependence and loyalty to family/clan  i.e. South Africa, Pakistan, Columbia  Distribution of resources and loyalty – key factors • SA – collectivist – support o Only place – HIV great impact – social issue- 2 parents pass away and the child is HIV positive – someo
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