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Organizational Behaviour Ch 4.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Anna Nagy

Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes and Work Behaviour W HAT AREV ALUES? Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others o Preference: values have to do with what we consider good and bad o Values are motivational signal attractive/ unattractive aspects we seek/avoid o Broad tendency: values are general, do not predict behaviour in specific situations well Classify values into categories: intellectual, economic, aesthetic, social, political and religious Not everyone holds the same values and most are socially reinforced by parents, teachers ... Occupational Differences in Values Members of different occupational groups adopt different values Differences in values can cause conflicts between and within organizations when members of different occupations are required to interact with each other A good fit between the values of supervisors & employees = their satisfaction and commitment Values across Cultures 16-40% of managers who receive foreign assignments terminate them early: perform poorly/do not adjust to the culture Many of these problems stem from a lack of appreciation of basic differences in work-related values across cultures Work Centrality: o Work is valued differently across cultures o Japan and Britain ranked highest/lowest with perceiving work as a central life interest Hofstedes Study: Hofstede: four basic dimensions along work-related values differed across cultures: o Power Distance: extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members Small PD cultures: inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed (Denmark, New Zealand, Austria) Large PD cultures: inequality is natural, superiors are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted (Philippines, Venezula, Mexico) o Uncertainty avoidance: extent which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures: stress rules, security, conformity, work Weak uncertainty avoidance cultures: risk taking is valued, less concerned with rules, conformity and hard work not seen as a virtue o Masculinity/Femininity: More masculine cultures: differentiate gender roles, support dominance of men, stress economic performance More feminine cultures: accept fluid gender roles, stress sex equality and QoL Japan most masculine society, Scandinavian most feminine o Individualism/Collection: Individualistic societies: stress independence, individual initiative and privacy Collective cultures: favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan US, Australia, Canada = individualistic; Pakistan, Venezuela = collective o Long-term/Short-term orientation: Long Term: stress persistence, perseverance, attention to status differences Short-Term: stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, social niceties Asian countries = long term; America = short term Hofstede produced a number of interesting cultural maps showing how countries and regions cluster together on pairs of cultural dimensions Cultures more individualistic tend to downplay power differences, vice versa Implications of Cultural Variation Exporting OB Theories: o OB theories, research and practices from NA might not translate well to other societies o Trying to translate an American leadership style to cultures valuing high power distance proves to be harder o A good fit between company practices and the host culture is important Importing OB Theories: o Not all theories and practices concerning OB designed in NA o Japanese management techniques an example: JIT, TQM, quality circles o Understanding cultural value differences = enable organizations to successfully import management practices by tailoring the practice to the home cultures concerns Appreciating Global Customers: o Appreciating cross-cultural differences in values important to understanding needs and tastes of customers around the world o Such an understanding has to do with OB (once thought to do with marketing) o Also important when customers enter your own culture Developing Global Employees:o Companies need to select, train and develop employees to have a much better appreciation of differences in CV and the implications of it in organizations W HAT AREA TTITUDE? Attitude: a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation or category of people (how you respond to someone/thing) Attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets(how much you like your boss) They are relatively stable and some are less strongly held than others (open to more change) They are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person or group: Attitude Behaviour Like Boss Praise Boss Attitudes are not always consistent with behaviour o People who like their boss do not always go around and praise him in public Thus, provide useful information over and above the actions that we can
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