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Organizational Behaviour Ch 5.doc

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Management (MGH)
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Anna Nagy

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Organizational Behaviour: Chapter 5Theories of Work Motivation Why Study Motivation: b/c of need to increase productivity to be globally competitive result of rapid changes to contemporary organizations requirements for flexibility and attention to customers that necessitate higher levels of initiative initiative depends on motivation! Motivational theories must: o Recognize human diversity and consider that same conditions will not motivate everyone o Explain why some people are self motivated while others need external factors o Recognize social aspect of human beings motivation affected by how ppl see others being treated Motivation: extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Basic Characteristics of Motivation Effort: -- strength of a persons work-related behaviour -- amount of effort person exhibits on the job Persistence: -- persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks - ex. researcher who makes discovery early in career and then does nothing for 5 years not persistent Direction: quality of work workers should channel persistence in direction that benefits organization - Correct decisions (stockbroker advises clients instead of playing comp. games) increase probability that persistent effort is turns into organizational outcomes - Working smart as well as hard Goals: motivated behaviour has some goal or objective to which its directed - may include high productivity, good attendance, creative decisions - can also be motivated by goals contrary to organizational goals Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation motivated by factors in external environment or be self motivated intrinsic motivation: direct relationship between worker and task: usually self applied o feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence and interest in job itself extrinsic motivation: work environment external to the task, administered by someone other than person being motivated o includes pay, fringe benefits, various forms of supervision some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities Conclusion of studies show availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce intrinsic motivation stemming from task itself When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases If extrinsic rewards on contingent on performance makes individual feel less competent and in control of behaviour o Because they start to believe that performance is controlled by environment and they only perform well b/c of the money o This is easily avoidable and only occurs in limited situations o Workers will see reward as sign of success and will try to increase performance to get reward in future Both types are important and compatible in enhancing work motivation! Motivation and Performance Important distinction b/w motivation and performance Performance: extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization Motivation contributes to performancebut not 1:1 relationship Intelligence, personality traits and core self-evaluations also predict job performance Two main types of intelligence: o General Cognitive Ability Refers to a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources Verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities Measured by specific aptitude tests Predicts learning and training success as well as job performance Applicable to both manual and mental tasks but is a better predictor for more complex and higher-level jobs Cognitive ability and motivation are essential to career success o Emotional Intelligence Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions and manage emotions in oneself and others Able to identify and recognize meanings of emotions to manage and regulate them as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action st Peter Salovey and John Mayer 1 to coin the term! Introduced 4 sequential steps 1. Perception of Emotions: perceive and identify emotions of oneself and others using facial expressions and nonverbal behaviour 2. Integration and Assimilation of Emotions: use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and facilitate in ones thinking and reasoning Involves shifting ones emotions and generating new ones to see things in different ways and perspectives Use emotions in functional ways: making decisions, other cognitive processes (creativity, integrative thinking etc) 3. Knowledge and Understanding of Emotions: understand emotional info, determinants and consequences of emotions and how they evolve and change over time Different situations and events generate emotions as well as how they and others are influenced by various emotions 4. Management of Emotions: manage ones emotions and those of others as well as emotional relationships Must master previous stages Able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others to suit the situation Ex. stay calm when feeling angry, excite and enthuse others, lower someones anger EI has been shown to predict performance, incl. job and academic performance Strongly related to jobs that require high levels of EI (cops, customer service reps) HOWEVER some say, no relation or inconsistent b/w EI and job performance Possible for performance to be low even when person is highly motivated o Could be due to poor understanding, or luck/chance factors o Opposite is also true, someone w/ high understanding and intelligences (general and EI) can perform well w/o high motivation Motivational interventions, such as linking pay to performance will not work if employees are deficient in important skills and abilities What is Employee Engagement? Disengagement is on the rise in Canada: 17% highly engaged, 66% moderate, 17% disengaged Involves some degree of effort but is concerned with how individuals perform jobs rather than how motivated they are to do them William Kahn: If disengaged remove true selves from role: withdraw and defend themselves physically, cognitively or emotionally 2 important components of engagement: ATTENTION AND ABSORPTION o Attention: amount of time one spends thinking about role o Absorption: being engrossed in a role and intensity of ones focus in role Kahn found 3 psychological conditions that contribute to engagement: o Psych. Meaningfulness: incentives foengagement: return on investment, feel worthwhile, valued, useful, not taken for granted o Psych. Safety: employ and express themselves w/o fear of neg. consequences to self image, status or career o Psych. Availability: have physical, emotional, cognitive resources required to be engaged one study found: businesses w/ high engagement had higher profitability, productivity, customer satisfaction, lower turnover Need Theories of Work Motivation: Needs Behaviour Incentives and Goals need theories: concerned with what motivates workers (needs, associated incentives or goals process theories: concerned with how various factors motivate ppl Maslows Hierarchy of Needs:
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