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Management (MGH)
Ted Mock

Organizational Behavior Ted Mock MGTB23 Lecture Notes Chapter Two Personality and Learning Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his/her environment – how they feel, think, behave – personal style of dealing with the world. It is determined by genetic predisposition (nature) and by long-term learning history (nurture). Dispositional approach – an approach to OB that believed that individuals display stable traits and characteristics that influence attitudes and behaviors. Encouraged the use personality tests to find candidates with the “correct” personality. This approach has not been completely supported by research. Situational approach – characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and behaviors influence peoples’ feelings, attitudes and behaviors. Person–situation debate – on-going debate in OB as to which approach (disposition or situation) is most effective at predicting and explaining behavior Interactionist approach (interactionism) – organizational behavior is a function of both dispositions and situation. Currently the most widely accepted approach to organizational behavior. The importance of personality or situation in influencing behavior depends upon the nature of the situation. The Big Five The Five Factor Model of Personality There are five basic but general dimensions that describe personality. Consider each factor as a spectrum or scale from high to low: Extroversion – outgoing, sociable and talkative vs. shy, withdrawn, avoids social interactions Emotional stability – emotional control, self-confidence, self-esteem vs. self-doubt, anxiety, depression Agreeableness – friendly, approachable, warm and considerate vs. cold and aloof Conscientiousness – responsible, achievement oriented, dependable and positively motivated vs. careless, impulsive and unreliable Organizational Behavior Ted Mock MGTB23 Openness to experience – person thinks flexibly, is open to new ideas, curious and original vs. dull, unimaginative and favors the status quo Conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of job performance of all the Big Five Factors. Extroversion has been positively linked to good performance in management and sales positions. Conscientiousness positively linked to retention and attendance and negatively related to theft, absenteeism and disciplinary problems Extroversion linked to higher absenteeism Locus of Control - A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces • High locus of control – belief that one controls their own destiny. Strong belief in free will and self-initiative • Low locus of control – power in life resides outside self – fate, luck or powerful people People with high locus of control earn more money, are more satisfied with their jobs, and achieve higher organizational positions. Perceive less stress, cope better with stress and engage in more careful career planning Self-Monitoring – the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships High self-monitoring employees behave somewhat like actors – they show concern for socially appropriate behavior, tune in to social and interpersonal cues and regulate their behavior and self-presentation to these cues. They may have strong communication and persuasive skills. They may have difficulty in ambiguous situations, may be weak innovators and have difficulty resisting social pressure. Self-Esteem – the degree to which a person has positive self-evaluation (how well they like them self) • Low self-esteem people may be uncertain about the correctness of their opinions, attitudes and behaviors • Low self-esteem people react poorly to negative feedback – it lowers their subsequent performance. Therefore managers must be careful about using negative feedback with low self-esteem employees. Also, don’t assign low self- esteems to jobs that entail a great deal of negative feedback and rejection eg. Insurance sales • High self-esteems experience higher job satisfaction, higher work performance and are more resilient to the strains of work life Behavioral Plasticity Theory – people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those with high self-esteem Organizational Behavior Ted Mock MGTB23 • Since low self-esteem people may be uncertain about the correctness of their opinions, attitudes and behaviors, they are more likely to look to others for information and confirmation Positive Affectivity (PA) – tendency to view the world, self and others in a positive light. Generally cheerful, enthusiastic, lively, sociable and energetic. Positively related to job satisfaction, job performance and creativity Negative affectivity (NA) - tendency to view the world, self and others in a negative light. Generally distressed, depressed and unhappy. Associated with lower job satisfaction, lower job performance and higher levels of workplace stress Proactive Behavior – taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones Proactive Personality – a stable personal disposition that reflects the tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations to affect positive change in one’s environment. • Individuals with high degree of this characteristic show initiative, take action and persevere to bring about meaningful change. Prefer to control their environment. More likely to find a job, earn higher salary, receive more frequent promotions and have more satisfying careers • Individuals with lower degree of this characteristic are likely to be passive and to adapt or react to their environment General Self-Efficacy (GSE) – a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his/her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations • Considered to be a motivational trait rather than an “affective” trait as it reflects individual’s belief that he can succeed rather than how he “feels” about him/her self • Believed to develop over life as repeated successes or failures are experienced across a variety of tasks and situations Core Self-Evaluations – four traits that make up a person’s core self-evaluat
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