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Chapter 7

4 Pages

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Anna Nagy

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Chapter 7 – Groups and Teamwork What is a Group?  Group – Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal - Interaction is the most basic aspect of a group  Formal work groups – Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals - designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction - Task forces – temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems - Committees – are usually permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structures.  Informal groups – Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Group Development  Typical Stages of Group Development  Forming – at this early stage, group members try to orient themselves by „testing the waters‟.  Storming – at this second stage, conflict often emerges. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing. Sorting out roles and responsibilities is often an issue.  Norming – at this stage, members resolve the issues that provoked the storming, and they develop social consensus. Compromise is often necessary. Interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive.  Performing – the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment. Achievement, creativity and mutual assistance are themes here.  Adjourning – some groups have a definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals. Rites and rituals that affirm group‟s successful development are common.  Punctuated Equilibrium – A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions.  Phase 1 – begins with first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group‟s existence. Agenda is set. Group makes visible progress towards goal.  Midpoint Transition – occurs almost exactly at halfway point in time toward the deadline. Marks a change in the group;s approach and how group manages the change is critical to show progress. Need to move is apparent, group may seek outside advice. May consolidate previously acquired info or even mark a new approach, but crystallizes the group‟s activities for Phase 2 like Phase 1.  Phase 2 – for better or for worse, decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in here. Concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and concern for how outsiders will evaluate the project. Group Structure and Its Consequences  Group Size  Size and Satisfaction – more members = lesser satisfaction. Chance to work decreases. Time for work decreases.  Size and Performance  Additive Tasks – group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members.  Disjunctive Tasks – group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member  Process losses – group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. Actual performance = potential performance – process losses  Conjunctive Tasks – group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member  Diversity of Group Membership – group diversity has strong impact on the interaction patterns – more diverse groups have more difficulty communicating effectively and becoming cohesive  Group Norms – norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behavior of each other  Why do norms develop – provides important psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption  What do norms develop about – develop to regulate behaviors that are considered at least marginally important to their supporters  How do norms develop – shared attitudes. Norms are collectively held expectations  Why do people comply – simply because the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes. Save time from social confusion  Typical Norms  Dress norms – clothing worn to work  Reward Allocation norms – equity, according to inputs; equality – reward everyone equally; reciprocity – reward people the way they reward you; social responsibility – reward those who truly need the reward  Performance norms – performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of inherent ability, personal motivation, or technology  Roles – positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors attached to them. “Packages” of norms that apply to particular group members.  Assigned roles - formally prescribe by an organization as a means of dividing labour and responsibility to facilitate task achievement  Emergent Roles – roles that develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment  Role Ambiguity – exists when the goals of one‟s job or the methods of performing it are unclear. Elements:  Organizational factors – some roles are inherently ambiguous bec of their function in the organization  The role sender – they might have unclear expectations of a focal person  Focal person – person new to the role who has not fully understood role their role expectations  Role Conflict – exists when an individual is faced with incompatible role expectations.  Intrasender role conflict – single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to the role occupant  Intersender role conflict – two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations  Interrole conflict – several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations  Person – role conflict – role demands call for behavior that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant  Status – the rank, social position or prestige accorded to group members. Group evaluations of a member  Formal Status Systems – mgmt‟s attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others. Status symbols – tangible indicat
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