Leadership Skills - Course Notes

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Management (MGH)
Phani Radhakrishnan

LEADERSHIP SKILLS 20 April 2014 4 Key Skill Competencies 1. Intrapersonal Skills o Self Esteem is to view oneself positively; approval of oneself, judging oneself as significant, capable, worthy, believe that one has desirable traits  Self-confidence (developed via class participation)  Concerns composure, optimism, and stable moods  Leaders high scores on self-esteem  Handle pressure well  Not take criticism personally  Expect to succeed  Be hard to coach  Overlook their mistakes  IMPLICATIONS Compared to other leaders, your scores suggest that you usually maintain a positive attitude, remain patient with staff errors and mistakes, and persist in the face of challenges, frustration, and reversals. On the other hand, you may be reluctant to listen to negative feedback  COMPETENCY ANALYSIS  COMPOSURE o Perceived as confident and self-assured  LISTENING o Confident in your judgments that you may sometimes seem not to take others’ views seriously o May see you as arrogant, regardless of the merit of your views  LEARNING AND PERSONAL COACHABILITY o Open to and may even solicit feedback o Because you are so self-confident, you may tend to focus on the positive and ignore the negative, can make you hard to coach  STRESS MANAGEMENT o Deal comfortably with frustrations, delays, and the pressures of deadlines and heavy workloads o Appear to thrive under pressure, perhaps taking on more than you should. Others admire and count on your resilience  CONFUSION (SELF ESTEEM VS. EMOTIONAL STABILITY)  Self-esteem is an aspect of emotional stability (aka neuroticism)  Neuroticism = Calm, angry, anxious, worried, guilt ridden, nervous  Self-esteem is a better predictor of job performance than emotional stability o Self-Control  Restrain impulses, stay focused, follow routines o Attitudes towards Authority is the tendency to act in an obedient manner in situations where it is socially expected of one to follow an overt or implied command. Tendency to follow rules, respect procedures, behave in socially appropriate manner, be conforming, be compliant (IE: Traffic, church, offices with people holding certain roles)  Follow rules and respect procedures, ease of supervision  Leaders with positive attitudes towards authority  Follow rules and respect procedures  Are compliant, conforming, socially appropriate, and easy to supervise  Leaders with negative attitudes toward authority  Ignore rules and violate procedures  Are rebellious, refractory, and hard to supervise  IMPLICATIONS Concerned about rules, procedures, and task clarity. Rule Orientation, you respect the rules of the organization, you follow them carefully, and you expect others to do so as well 2. Interpersonal Skills (initiate, build, maintain) o Social Skills (facet of agreeableness and extraversion) is the ability to read others accurately, make favorable first impressions, adapt to a wide range of social situations and being persuasive  Puts oneself in the place of another person and try to understand what the person expects in an interaction  Concerns seeming talkative, socially bold, and entertaining  Leaders with similar scores tend to  Seem approachable, not distant  Be comfortable either working alone or with others  Prefer formal rather than casual meetings  Provide staff relevant feedback  Balance listening with talking  IMPLICATIONS Compared to other leaders, your scores suggest that you are flexible with your time, and don't mind working either alone or as part of a team. You meet the public well, but you don't need to be the center of attention or constantly on stage  COMPETENCY ANALYSIS  INITIATING INTERACTIONS o You are able to initiate and build good relations with others in your organization, including people you don't already know  ENERGY o Others see you as having appropriate energy and enthusiasm for new people and projects  APPROACHABILITY o Your ability to initiate interactions with new people is an important skill for leaders. Continue developing contacts in the organization, and include your staff in the interactions  INTERPERSONAL NETWORK o Your networking skills are sufficient to keep you in touch with the organization  TEAM ORIENTATION o Others see you as participating appropriately in team tasks o Self-Monitoring is the extent to which you monitor, regulate, and control yourself in social situations  Incorporate information about other person’s expectations in one’s subsequent behavior  IE: Regulating oneself when interacting with supervisor  IE: High self-monitor may deceive people by being friendly when they dislike them  Low self-monitors behave according to their own inner states; high self- monitors behave according to the social situation  CONFUSION (SELF-AWARENESS VS. SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS)  Self-conscious individuals are more focused on internal states and public appearance (negatively to self-awareness) suggesting that self-conscious individuals may be more likely to be under-raters o Self-Control (facet of conscientiousness) involves the ability to restrain one’s impulses, curb one’s appetites, stay focused, maintain schedules, and follow routines  Stay focused on the other person’s expectations  IE: Supervisor’s expectation of being treated with respect  Leaders with good self-control  Self-disciplined, buttoned down, and abstemious  Persons with poor self-control  Impulsive, self-indulgent, and undisciplined  COMPETENCY ANALYSIS  IMPULSE CONTROL o Ability to delay gratification vs. have ‘here and now” orientation  PERSISTENCE o Lacking diligence, tenacity or persistence in the course of action (ability stay focused on task or on others’ expectations of you)  LOW RISK SEEKING o Being adventuresome rather than cautious  LOW SELF-CENTEREDNESS o Being indifferent or insensitive to the suffering and needs of others  ABILITY TO CONTROL EMOTIONS o Having a minimal tolerance for frustration (temper) To develop interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, and improve performance you have be become self-aware. According to Bass and Yammarino (1991), individuals with inflated or deflated self-assessments (typically over-estimators and under-estimators, respectively) will misdiagnose their strengths and weaknesses. These inaccurate evaluations can adversely affect job relevant decisions. Accurate self-perceivers, in contrast, tend to make more effective job-relevant decisions. Bandura’s (1982) work on aspiration level also provides some insight. Individuals who under-estimate their abilities and skills will tend to set low aspiration levels and will underachieve. Those with accurate self-assessments will develop favorable efficacy expectations and commensurate achievement. Those who are more aware of how they are perceived by others are rated as more ‘transformational’ by their subordinates and are better performers. Self-aware individuals use information they received about their leadership to improve their performance. Better managers are better at assessing the level of their own behaviors and the impact these behaviors have on others. Van Velsor Study stated those who had over rated their abilities to build good relationships and to deal effectively with people were provided with feedback, some changed their view (58%). There was a positive relation between change in performance and change in self-view 6 months after feedback. **NOTE: Personality predicts career success and satisfaction To develop intrapersonal skills: • Choose appropriate careers, consider factors of personality and interest • Manage yourself by setting appropriate goals, manage stress (especially of the environment of the career you have chosen) • Accept your tendencies of behaving, thinking and feelings because 30% of personality is genetic • Understand differences between you and others • Understand why others react to the way they do • Adapt your communication behaviors to others’ reactions Self-Awareness is the ability to assess one’s personality behaviors and skills accurately by: • Observing one’s own thoughts, behaviors, skills, using reliable, valid and structured questionnaires (how do you know questionnaire is valid and reliable) • Comparing own observations to an external source (professional context, intimate context, stranger) Feedback helps because acceptance and differential use of feedback also can be influenced by self-perception accuracy. Ashford (1989) suggested that individuals with the most accurate self- ratings will be most likely to use information about their abilities and performance and can alter their behavior accordingly. Likewise, Fahr and Dobbins (1989a, 1989b) noted that self- perceptions and accuracy of self-ratings can be altered by the provision of social comparison information that is used differently by various individuals. Atwater et al. (1992) found that feedback from subordinates’ ratings subsequently altered self-evaluations of leadership. Specifically, those with inflated self-perceptions (self-ratings higher than follower ratings) significantly reduced their self-evaluations and significantly improved their leadership performance. Those with deflated self-perceptions significantly increased their self-evaluations, while their performance remained high, but unchanged. (These conclusions reflect mean differences; not all individuals responded in this manner.) In other words, feedback about others’ perceptions can change both self-evaluations and, for over-estimators, subsequent performance Personality is a person’s tendency toward thinking, behaving and feeling in consistent ways across different types of situations and across time. • Extraversion o Gregariousness (talkativeness),friendliness, assertiveness, activitylevel, excitement seeking, cheerfulness • Agreeableness o Sympathy, trust, morality, altruism, cooperation, modesty Behavior is different from personality. Behavior can be observed and measured all the time (IE: Talkativeness in social situations is extraversion vs. talkativeness in non-social situations is not). It is also influenced by personality and other factors (IE: Talking in class is determined by personality and reinforcement whereas talking across different social situation is determined by personality). SUMMARY • Why become self-aware o To improve performance, manage career, improve interpersonal interactions • What is self-awareness o Knowing about yourself via feedback from self, peers, others and changing appropriately • What to become aware about o Personality, interpersonal and intrapersonal skills • How to make the process of self-awareness valuable o Take valid surveys, compare own perception to another’s perception 3. Leadership Skills o Motivating Subordinates  Goal setting  Performance feedback (sales, grades) How to Set Effective Goals • Why do goals improve performance o Focus attention on behaviors that will attain goal o Increase amount of effort on task o Increase amount of time spent on task o Promote use or discovery of knowledge needed to do task o IE: Glucose intolerance – focus on eating or drinking behaviors that increase glucose, read labels or products containing glucose, learn about what products release glucose faster or slower, learn about what ways to reduce glucose intolerance, like exercise, spend more time exercising and exercise harder, ignore distractions to lowering glucose • What makes goals more effective in improving performance o Specificity and difficulty of goal  Specific goals = high performance • Clear performance standard  Do your best goals = low performance • No external standard for performance • Performance defined individually o Knowledge to attain goal  Learning goals = high GPA • Specific about number of strategies to be discovered to learn how to perform a task • Learn to network, master specific subject matter • Facilitate planning • Focus on understanding tasks and doing it effectively • Monitoring and evaluating progress toward goal attainment • Important in unstructured environments  Performance goals = low GPA • Training increases knowledge on how to do tasks • Attain specific GPA at end of semester o Feedback on progress toward goal  Sub goals • Provides immediate feedback on whether behavior is consistent with goals • Sub-goals give markers of progress, recast the big goal into smaller attainable ones, helps get feedback to evaluate whether strategies to attain larger goals are successful o Commitment to goal  Making goal public  Assigning goals that implicitly convey confidence in performer  Making goals important by rewarding their achievement • Type of reward o Money = Praise > Public recognition o Situational conditions increase commitment to goals  High role overload = having excess work without resources to accomplish task  Goals positively affect performance only when overload was low Debriefed by talking about the difference between the overall performance standard and objective versus goals to help employees achieve the standard. Also, we talked about the difference between goal setting and micro managing. Finally, how tough it is to do it well and then also incorporate a participative model to the meeting and goal setting process. Overall, it allowed students to see that although you have a performance objective to set, the process of motivating people to achieve that target is done through goal setting (IE: The meeting they are conducting is part of the process of getting an employee to do what the organization needs). How feedback operates (sales, grades) • Does it elicit attention to self or task goal o Attention to self (IE: How bad or good am I as a sales person or student) (S)  FEEDBACK DECREASES NEGATIVE EFFECT ATTN TO SELF HAS ON PERFORMANCE • Compares self to others • Affect (IE: Mistrust, retaliation) • Distract from focal task (concern about defending self-image interferes with ability to focus on task) • Attention to non-focal task (focusing on self diverts attention away from task to questions of who we really are) • Feedback o [1] Show respect for subordinate and prevent embarrassment  Invite subordinate to private setting o [5] Prevents subordinate from getting upset or feelings hurt  Invite subordinate’s reaction to your feedback o [4] Maintain standard of work and preserve relationship  Raise issue of concern in subordinate’s behavior without blame or criticism o [9] Show you value subordinate  Comment on subordinate’s ideas o [11] Get best outcome for project and subordinate  Spend time discussing both sets of ideas o Attention to task (IE: How hard and long to work to increase sales or grades)  FEEDBACK INCREASES ATTENTION TO TASK • Information on how to improve o Focus on task o Increased motivation (increased effort to reduce gap between actual and ideal performance) • Information about correct answer o Focus on task o Increased learning (generate accurate hypotheses about why that was the correct answer, how to improve; learn rules of task, recognize errors, help through discovery – why this is correct answer rather than what) • Feedback o [2] Give subordinate an opportunity to self-appraise  Set scene for personal review by inquiring about progress on project o [3] Maintain motivation and cooperation  Put feedback in context by initially acknowledging the positive aspects of performance o [4] Maintain standard of work and preserve relationship  Raise issue of concern in subordinate’s behavior without blame or criticism o [6] Maintain credibility and give evidence to justify concerns  Specify examples of the behavior and negative consequences for the project o [7] Show you are fair minded and involve subordinate  Invite subordinate to respond to your feedback and
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