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Lecture Notes_chapter 9.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Xuefeng Liu

Organizational Behavior Ted Mock Lecture Notes Chapter Nine Leadership Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. It is influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce. Formal leadership positions are “expected” to influence others and are given the authority to direct others However, the presence of a “formal leadership role” does not guarantee that there is “leadership” Are leaders born or made? (nature / nurture argument) Traits (nature) – Is there a special set of traits that are required to be an effective leader? Traits are personal characteristics of the individual including physical characteristics, intellectual abilities and personality The following traits have been shown to be associated with effective leadership: • Intelligence • Energy • Self-confidence • Dominance • Motivation to lead • Emotional stability • Honesty/integrity • Need for achievement • Height (tallness) The following Big Five characteristics are also associated with leadership: • Agreeableness • Extraversion • Openness to experience In addition, effective leaders usually demonstrate a high level of EI Limitations of the trait approach Organizational Behavior Ted Mock Causality – do dominant people become good leaders or do good leaders adopt a dominant approach when they become leaders? Traits may be necessary pre-condition but do not guarantee success as a leader The trait approach does not explain what leaders must do to be effective. Therefore, the trait approach is of little value in coaching and developing leaders. Task Leader – a leader whose main concern is accomplishing the task by organizing others, planning strategy, and dividing labour. A task leader demonstrates task orientation and directive behavior. Social-emotional Leader – a leader who is primarily concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, settling arguments and maintaining morale. A social- emotional leader demonstrates employee orientation and supportive behavior. The combination of these two effects lead to the following diagram: 1. Country Club Management 1. Team Management 2. SUPPORTING 2. COACHING 1. Impoverished 1. Authority/Obedience Management Management 2. DIRECTING 2. DELEGATING This diagram can be used in two ways: • As a guide to how effective your leadership style is. Your general attitude to the leadership of the group will fall into one of these categories. • As a guide to how best to lead different individuals using different styles to make the most efficient use of both their, and your, time and talents. Analyzing Your Style How do you lead your group? What is your attitude to both them and the task at hand? • Impoverished Management (low concern for the task, low concern for people). This style is characterized by minimal effort on your part, just enough to get the job done and maintain the group structure. "I'll just let them get on with it, I'm sure they'll do fine, they don't really want me interfering anyway" Organizational Behavior Ted Mock • Country Club Management (low concern for the task, high concern for people). You take good care of your group, ensuring a comfortable, friendly atmosphere. You hope this will lead to the work getting done. "It stands to reason, if they're happy they'll work harder and the work will take care of itself." • Authority/Obedience Management (high concern for task, low concern for people). You are probably a bit of a task master. The most important thing is the work. You lead from behind by driving the group in front of you. "We're here to work, the work needs to be done. If they're working hard enough they won't have time to feel unhappy, they're not here to enjoy themselves." • Team Management (high concern for task, high concern for people). You see the completion of the task and the well being of the group as interdependent through a common stake in the organization's future. This leads to relationships built on trust and respect, and work accomplishment from committed employees. "We're in this together. We need to support and help each other to get this job done." The requirement for directive behavior vs. supportive behavior will vary according to the situation – the nature of the task, skill level of employee, level of urgency and so on. This will be discussed more under “contingency management” Roles of Leaders Consideration and initiating structure – you will see a close link between these concepts and concern for people/concern for task that was just discussed. Consideration – the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees. A considerate leader is seen as friendly, egalitarian (treats others as equals), expresses appreciation and support and is protective of group welfare. This quality role is related to the social-emotional function of leadership where the leader shows employee orientation and supportive behaviors Initiating structure – the leader defines and organizes his/her role, the roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules work and assigns tasks. This role is related to task orientation and directive behavior. Research shows that both consideration and structure positively contribute to employee motivation, job satisfaction and leader effectiveness. Consideration is more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation and leader effectiveness. Organizational Behavior Ted Mock Initiating structure is more closely related to job performance and group performance The relative importance of consideration vs. initiating structure varies according to the nature of leadership situation Initiating structure is most appropriate when there are deadlines, unclear tasks or an external threat Consideration is most appropriate when tasks are very clear and employees have the required skills When tasks are clear, employees have skills and the work is intrinsically motivating, there is a low need for both consideration and initiating structure Leader reward and punishment behaviors Both rewards and punishments can be associated with positive employee outcomes such as trust, job satisfaction and motivation provided they are seen as contingent upon employee performance and behavior. However, if rewards and punishments are viewed as capricious, they will lead to negative employee outcomes. Situational Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Theory This is a controversial and somewhat confusing theory of leadership that has limit research support Fiedler classifies leaders into High LPC’s and Low LPC’s An LPC means “least preferred co-worker” A manager rates his/her least preferred coworker (subordinate) on an 18 item scale of likeability. Some managers will rate their least preferred coworker higher than other mangers. These mangers are called High LPC managers. A high LPC manager will find positive attributes in his/her worst employee. A manager who rates his/her least preferred coworker very low on the 18 item scale is called a Low LPC manager. These managers find few, if any, positive qualities in their least preferred coworker. Fiedler argues that the manger’s LPC score reveals a personality trait that reflects the leader’s motivational structure. Organizational Behavior Ted Mock High LPC managers tend to maintain good interpersonal relations Low LPC managers are motivated to accomplish the task However, the LPC score is not a measure of consideration or initiating structure Fiedler suggests that some situations are more “favourable” for the exercise of leadership and that the type of leadership that is most effective varies with the situation (which is why this is called Fiedler’s Contingency Theory) The situation is most favourable for leadership when: • Leader-member relations are good • The task is structured • The leader has a strong power position The model in Exhibit 9.2 suggests the conditions under which each leadership style is most effective House’s Path-Goal Theory The most important activities of leaders are those that clarify the paths to the v
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