Textbook notes-Chapter 7-Groups and Teamwork

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Management (MGH)
Andrew Davidson

1 CHAPTER 7 ± GROUPS AND TEAMWORK WHAT IS A GROUP group: two or more ppl interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal - interaction dun need to be face to face or verbal group memberships imp cuz 1) groups exert a tremendous influence on us , they are the social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours 2) groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others formal group: groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals - they are intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction - most common formal group consists of a manager and the employee who report to that manager - task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems - committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usually work group structure informal groups: groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Æ they are seldom sanctioned by the organization and their membership often cuts across formal groups GROUP DEVELOPMENT Typical stages of group development 1) forming - group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters - situation is often ambiguous and members are aware of their dependency on each other ex. wut are we doing here, what are the others like 2) storming - conflict emerge - confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing - sorting our roles and responsibilities is often at issue 3) norming - members resolve the issues that provoked the storming and they develop social consensus - compromise is often necessary - interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive - info and opinions flow freely 4) performing - devotes its energies toward task accomplishment - achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance are prominent themes 5) adjourning - rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common - members often exhibit emotional support for each other 1 www.notesolution.com 2 - the stages model is good for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups are developing but not all groups go through this - the process applies mainly to new groups that have never met b4 Punctuated equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium model: a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected b their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions - equilibrium means stability and the research revealed apparent stretches of group stability punctuated a critical first meeting, a midpnt change in group activity, and a rush to task completion phase 1 - begins with meetings and cts until the midpoint in the groups existence - first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase - assumptions approaches, and precedents that members develop end up dominating the first half of the groups life - it fathers info and hold meetings, the group makes lil visible progress toward the goal midpoint transition - half way towards the deadline , and marks change in the groups approach and how the group manages it is critical for the group to show progress - the need to move forward is apparent and the group may seek outside advice - may consolidate previously acquired info or mark a completely new approach but it crystallizes the groups activities for phase 2 phase 2 - concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders with evaluate the product [ rmb pnts pg 229] - concept of punctuated equilibrium applies to groups with deadlines GROUPS STURCUTE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES - group structure refers to the characteristic of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is put together Æ size, member diversity, roles, status, cohesiveness Group size - smallest group is 2 (manager and employee) - 300-400 is limit, usually 3-20 members Size and satisfaction - larger groups consistently report less satisfaction with group members - opportunities for friendship increase and the change work on and develop these opportunities might decrease owing the sheer time and energy requires - diff viewpnts larger groups prompt conflict and dissension, time for verbal participation decrease - less easily with the individual success and accomplishment of the group 2 www.notesolution.com 3 Size and performance additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member process losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups - both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and disjunctive tasks - the net effect is that actual performance increases with the size up to a pnt and then falls - the avg performance of group members decrease as size gets bigger - larger groups might perform better than groups but their individual members tend to be less efficient conjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member - performance on purely conjunctive task should decrease as group size increase Diversity of group membership - more diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive, thus taking longer to do their forming, storming, and norming - diverse groups sometimes perform better when the tasks requires cognitive, creativity demanding tasks, and problems solving - any negative effects of surface diversity, in age gender, or race sear off over time Group norms norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other - much normative influence is unconscious and we are aware of such influence only in special circumstances - become conscious with norms when we encounter ones that seem to conflict with each other norm development - the most imp function that norms serve is to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour - the consistency provides imp psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption - norms develop to regulate behaviour that are considered at least marginally imp to their supporters - individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value, their attitudes affect their behaviour - compliance occur cuz the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes , they save time and prevent social confusion typical norms 1) dress norms 2) reward allocation norms: i)equity: reward according to inputs ii) equality ± reward everyone equally iii) reciprocity ± reward ppl the way they reward you iv) social responsibility ± reward those who truly need the reward 3) performance norms - function of social expectations as its of inherent ability, personal motivation, or tech 3 www.notesolution.com 4 Roles Æ positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them - development of roles is indicative of the fact that group members might also be required to act diffly from one another - designated or assigned roles are formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and responsibility to facilitate task achievement - assigned roles indicate who does what and who can tell others what to do - emergent roles : those that develop naturally to meet the social emotional needs og groups members or to assist in formal job accomplishment Role ambiguity Æ lack of clarity of job goals or methods 1) organizational factors - some roles inherently ambiguous cuz of their function in the organization 2) role sender - role sender might have unclear expectations of a focal person even when the sender has specific role expectations they might be ineffectively sent to the focal person 3) the focal person - even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digest by the focal person (especially if new to role) - most frequent consequences are job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, lower performance, and intentions to quit - solve this by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback Role conflict Æ a condition of being faced with incompati
More Less

Related notes for MGHD27H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.