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Management (MGM)
Bill Mc Conkey

Josh Lobo #996812123 Chapter 7 Notes- Memory and Retrieval What is Memory?  Consumer memory- A personal storehouse of knowledge about products and services, shopping, and consumption experiences.  Retrieval- The process of remembering or accessing what we have stored in memory.  We all store and remember information about things, experiences, and evaluations.  Specifically we might remember what brands, products, services, and companies we have used in the past (things); what we paid; the features of these products or services; how, where, when, and why we bought and used them (experiences) and whether or not we liked them (evaluations). What are the Types of Memory? List: -Sensory Memory -Short-Term Memory -Long-Term Memory -Autobiographical Memory -Semantic Memory Sensory Memory  Sensory Memory- Sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory. o Uses a short term storage area called the sensory store o Operates automatically, and if we quickly switch our attention to our sensory store, we may be able to interpret what is in it. o Our sensory store can house information from any of the senses but  Echoic memory- very brief memory for things we hear  Iconic memory- very brief memory for things we see o Information in sensory memory is stored in its actual sensory form.  We store the word amazing as it sounds, and we store it exactly, not as a synonym. o Information in sensory memory is short lived, generally lasting from a quarter of a second to several seconds, if the information is relevant, we will be motivated to process it further and it may inter what is called short term memory. If we do not analyze the info, it is lost. Short-Term Memory  Short term memory- the portion of memory where incoming information is encoded or interpreted in light of existing knowledge.  The processes of knowing and understanding discussed in ch.4 occur in short-term memory.  As you read this book, you are using your short term memory to comprehend what you read. 1 Josh Lobo #996812123  Short term memory is very important, because it is where most of our information processing takes place.  Short term memory can be hurt when we are distracted by other information.  Discursive Processing- the processing of information as words  Imagery Processing- the processing of information in sensory form.  Information represented either as words or images can be elaborated, or thought about more deeply. When MAO is low, short-term memory might consist of a simple reproduction of an object- for example, the word skier or a picture of a skier.  When MAO is high, however, consumers can use elaborated imagery processing to engage in daydreams, fantasies, visual problem-solving, or elaborated discursive processing to think about upcoming events or work out solutions to current problems. Characteristics of Short-Term Memory  Short Term Memory is limited o We can hold only a certain number of things in short-term memory at any one time  Short term memory is short-lived o The information held in short term memory is very short-lived unless hat information is transferred to long term memory. Unless we actively try to remember information, it will be lost. This phenomenon explains why we sometimes learn someone’s name only to forget it two minutes later. [Marketing Implications] Short-term memory, particularly imagery processing, has four key implications for marketers:  Imagery processing can affect product liking and choice  Imagery can stimulate memories of past experiences  Imagery can affect how much information we can process  Imagery may affect how satisfied we are with a product or consumption experience Long Term Memory  Long Term Memory (LTM)- The part of memory here information is placed for later use; permanently stored knowledge  There are two times of LTM o Autobiographical Memory (or EPISODIC memory)- Knowledge we have about ourselves and our personal experiences  Past experiences as well as emotions and sensations tied to these experiences 2 Josh Lobo #996812123  These memories tend to be primarily sensory, mainly involving visual images, although it can include sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile sensations.  Tends to be very personal (naturally) and idiosyncratic o Semantic Memory- general knowledge about an entity, detached from specific episodes.  General knowledge about the world. [Marketing Implications] Autobiographical memory, is important to marketers  Affecting decision making  Promoting empathy and identification  Cueing and preserving autobiographical memories  Reinterpreting memories How Memory is Enhanced Lists: Chunking Rehearsal Recirculation Elaboration The following processes are useful for influencing short-term memory or for increasing the likelihood that information will be transferred to long-term memory- with important implications for marketers. Chunking  Chunk- a group of items that can be processed as a unit  Reduces the likelihood that information will be lost from short term memory  [MI] Marketers can use chunking to get people to remember their brands; phone numbers that are creative (967 11-11) or acronyms in their names Rehearsal  The process of actively reviewing material in an attempt to remember it.  Affects the transfer of information to long term memory  Like studying; in marketing rehearsal is likely to occur only when consumers are motivated to process and remember information. If you are motivated to find food ingredients that are associated with good health; you might study them so that you will not forget them.  [MI]- when motivation is low, marketers may use tactics like jingles, and slogans to perpetuate rehearsal. Recirculation  The process by which information is remembered via simple repetition without active rehearsal  Information can be transferred to long term memory this way 3 Josh Lobo #996812123  [MI]- Marketers create different ads that send out the same message, with different content o This helps to create more brand awareness o Ads that repeat their brand names over and over are good examples Elaboration  Transferring information into long-term memory by processing it at deeper levels.  More enduring memory is established when we try to relate information to prior knowledge and past experiences.  [MI]- Marketers try and create associations that make people think; GEICO gets people to make the connection between their brand and their Gecko. What is Retrieval? Lists: Organization of Long-Term Memory The Semantic Network Retrieval Failures Retrieval Errors Organization of Long-Term Memory  Memory researchers think about long-term memory, or prior knowledge, as a series of semantic (or associative) networks. o Semantic or associative network- A set of associations in memory that are linked to a concept.  Your memory is built around associations of concepts.  Some links are thicker, others are thinner  The ones that are weak have been encountered infrequently, have not been accessed in a long time, or have been processed on a very limited basis.  Stronger links have been rehearsed, re-circulated, chunked and elaborated extensively. The Semantic Network  We have a lot of information in our memory, but we are only able to retrieve or access some of it at any given time. We have all been in situations in which we try to remember something but cannot. Two factors about the semantic network affect what we remember: TRACE STRENGTH and SPREADING OF ACTIVATION Trace Strength  The extent to which an association or link is strongly or weakly linked to a concept in memory.  The stronger the link that connects information to the category, the more accessible the information is and the easier it is to retrieve from memory. 4 Josh Lobo #996812123 o Accessible- The extent to which an association or link is retrievable from memory. Spreading of Activation  The process by which retrieving one concept or association spreads to t
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