Chapter 7 Notes- Memory and Retrieval
What is Memory?
Consumer memory- A personal storehouse of knowledge about products
and services, shopping, and consumption experiences.
Retrieval- The process of remembering or accessing what we have stored in
We all store and remember information about things, experiences, and
Specifically we might remember what brands, products, services, and
companies we have used in the past (things); what we paid; the features of
these products or services; how, where, when, and why we bought and used
them (experiences) and whether or not we liked them (evaluations).
What are the Types of Memory?
Sensory Memory- Sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory.
o Uses a short term storage area called the sensory store
o Operates automatically, and if we quickly switch our attention to our
sensory store, we may be able to interpret what is in it.
o Our sensory store can house information from any of the senses but
Echoic memory- very brief memory for things we hear
Iconic memory- very brief memory for things we see
o Information in sensory memory is stored in its actual sensory form.
We store the word amazing as it sounds, and we store it
exactly, not as a synonym.
o Information in sensory memory is short lived, generally lasting from a
quarter of a second to several seconds, if the information is relevant,
we will be motivated to process it further and it may inter what is
called short term memory. If we do not analyze the info, it is lost.
Short term memory- the portion of memory where incoming information is
encoded or interpreted in light of existing knowledge.
The processes of knowing and understanding discussed in ch.4 occur in
As you read this book, you are using your short term memory to comprehend
what you read.
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Short term memory is very important, because it is where most of our
information processing takes place.
Short term memory can be hurt when we are distracted by other
Discursive Processing- the processing of information as words
Imagery Processing- the processing of information in sensory form.
Information represented either as words or images can be elaborated, or
thought about more deeply. When MAO is low, short-term memory might
consist of a simple reproduction of an object- for example, the word skier or
a picture of a skier.
When MAO is high, however, consumers can use elaborated imagery
processing to engage in daydreams, fantasies, visual problem-solving, or
elaborated discursive processing to think about upcoming events or work
out solutions to current problems.
Characteristics of Short-Term Memory
Short Term Memory is limited
o We can hold only a certain number of things in short-term memory at
any one time
Short term memory is short-lived
o The information held in short term memory is very short-lived unless
hat information is transferred to long term memory. Unless we
actively try to remember information, it will be lost. This phenomenon
explains why we sometimes learn someone’s name only to forget it
two minutes later.
Short-term memory, particularly imagery processing, has four key implications for
Imagery processing can affect product liking and choice
Imagery can stimulate memories of past experiences
Imagery can affect how much information we can process
Imagery may affect how satisfied we are with a product or consumption
Long Term Memory
Long Term Memory (LTM)- The part of memory here information is placed
for later use; permanently stored knowledge
There are two times of LTM
o Autobiographical Memory (or EPISODIC memory)- Knowledge we
have about ourselves and our personal experiences
Past experiences as well as emotions and sensations tied to
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These memories tend to be primarily sensory, mainly involving
visual images, although it can include sounds, smells, tastes,
and tactile sensations.
Tends to be very personal (naturally) and idiosyncratic
o Semantic Memory- general knowledge about an entity, detached
from specific episodes.
General knowledge about the world.
Autobiographical memory, is important to marketers
Affecting decision making
Promoting empathy and identification
Cueing and preserving autobiographical memories
How Memory is Enhanced
The following processes are useful for influencing short-term memory or for
increasing the likelihood that information will be transferred to long-term memory-
with important implications for marketers.
Chunk- a group of items that can be processed as a unit
Reduces the likelihood that information will be lost from short term memory
[MI] Marketers can use chunking to get people to remember their brands;
phone numbers that are creative (967 11-11) or acronyms in their names
The process of actively reviewing material in an attempt to remember it.
Affects the transfer of information to long term memory
Like studying; in marketing rehearsal is likely to occur only when consumers
are motivated to process and remember information. If you are motivated to
find food ingredients that are associated with good health; you might study
them so that you will not forget them.
[MI]- when motivation is low, marketers may use tactics like jingles, and
slogans to perpetuate rehearsal.
The process by which information is remembered via simple repetition
without active rehearsal
Information can be transferred to long term memory this way
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[MI]- Marketers create different ads that send out the same message, with
o This helps to create more brand awareness
o Ads that repeat their brand names over and over are good examples
Transferring information into long-term memory by processing it at deeper
More enduring memory is established when we try to relate information to
prior knowledge and past experiences.
[MI]- Marketers try and create associations that make people think; GEICO
gets people to make the connection between their brand and their Gecko.
What is Retrieval?
Organization of Long-Term Memory
The Semantic Network
Organization of Long-Term Memory
Memory researchers think about long-term memory, or prior knowledge, as
a series of semantic (or associative) networks.
o Semantic or associative network- A set of associations in memory
that are linked to a concept.
Your memory is built around associations of concepts.
Some links are thicker, others are thinner
The ones that are weak have been encountered infrequently, have not been
accessed in a long time, or have been processed on a very limited basis.
Stronger links have been rehearsed, re-circulated, chunked and elaborated
The Semantic Network
We have a lot of information in our memory, but we are only able to retrieve
or access some of it at any given time. We have all been in situations in which
we try to remember something but cannot. Two factors about the semantic
network affect what we remember: TRACE STRENGTH and SPREADING OF
The extent to which an association or link is strongly or weakly linked to a
concept in memory.
The stronger the link that connects information to the category, the more
accessible the information is and the easier it is to retrieve from memory.
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o Accessible- The extent to which an association or link is retrievable
Spreading of Activation
The process by which retrieving one concept or association spreads to t