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Chapter 10 Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGT)
Chris Bovaird

Chapter 10- Motivating Employees 6 Theories and Experiments: 1. Classical Theory 2. Scientific Management 3. Hawthorn Experiments 4. Theory X and Theory Y 5. Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs 6. Herzberg: Two Factor Theory Motivation: its importance  Natural Resources- if neglected, abused or wasted, the cost is finite  Capital- if neglected, abused, or wasted, the cost is finite  Human Resources- if neglected abused or wasted. May never recover. May try to undermine. They may stop working hard. 1. Classical Theory  Workers are motivated only by money  This is wrong because there are a lot of jobs where the managers are really bad but they pay a lot and workers will still not work for them 2. Scientific Management  a book that was written by Frederick Taylor  Taylor was a n efficiency expert and his goal was to increase output  How can we change the nature of things so that ppl can work harder, faster and better? Was the goal of Taylor  Develop “best” way to perform a job  Train workers in the standard method  Eliminate delays and interruptions  How? o Perform time and motion studies o Break job into simple separate tasks o Introduce specialization and repetition o Remove inefficiencies and wasted time o Productivity should increase  What was the effect in Henry Fords Plan? o It shot up for a while but then dropped  Problem with Scientific Theory o Productivity does increase in short term o But-ppl are not machines o Boring, repetitive jobs lead to alienation, disaffection, absenteeism o Ppl are not using their brains, not imaginative, they do what they are told o If you treat ppl like machines they will become unmotivated 3. Hawthorne Experiments  Research conducted by Harvard Uni  Experiments conducted at Hawthorne factory in Chicago  Started in 1923 and worked for about a decade  Was tryin to figure out how to get ppl to work faster, more enthusiasm, better  Maybe the working conditions affects how ppl work  Research to determine best environment  How: change the temperature, humidity, length of breaks, lighting levels, etc  They turned up lights and they saw that productivity went up but then they did the opposite and they saw that productivity went up again  The reason this happened was that the workers wanted to impress the researchers  Hawthorn Effect o People will try harder if they feel:  That they are part of a team  What they do matters  Conclusion o Take notice of your employees o If they do good work - thank them 4. Theory X and Theory Y  Douglas McGregor-prof mgmt.  He was also worried about how to get ppl to wrk  Theory X o Work done best in controlled environments o Eg. “Scientific Mangament” o Therefore: Establish lots of rules, treat ppl with threats and punishment o Don’t trust your workers, make them do what you want them to do and make sure they do it o People are:  Dumb  Lazy  Lacking ambition  Selfish  Avoiding Responsibility  Theory Y o People are:  Smart  Energetic  Ambitious
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