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Management (MGT)
Chris Bovaird

 Information manager: the manager responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze, and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions  Information management: an internal operation that arranges the firm's information resources to support business performance and outcomes  Data: raw facts and figures (ex. -fifty million tubes of toothpaste were sold last year. -the birth rate is rising slowly. - a major dentists' group recently came out in favour of brushing three times a day.)  Information: a meaningful, useful interpretation of data (if all these data examples above can be put together in a meaningful way, they may produce information about what sells toothpaste and whether manufacturers should build new plants) o The challenge for businesses is to turn a flood of data into information and to manage that information to their best advantage o One response to this challenge has been the growth of the information system (IS)—an organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making o Employees at every level in the organization, ranging from operational specialists to the top executive, use information systems to improve performance o The relationship between information systems and organizations is amongst the fastest- changing aspects of business today. At one time, information system applications were narrow in scope and technically focused. But then managers soon began using IS not merely to solve technical problems, but to analyze management problems, especially for control processes— applying quality-control standards to production, comparing costs against budgeted amounts, keeping records on employee absences and turnover. Today, IS are also crucial in planning. Finally, another basic change in organizations is an increased interdependence between a company's business strategy and its IS. Today, the choice of a business strategy requires and information system that can support that strategy. To effectively support a strategy, the system's software, hardware, and other components must be integrated o New electronic information technologies and more advanced data communication networks are meeting the needs of certain companies  Electronic information technologies (EIT): are IS applications based on telecommunications technologies --EITSs use networks of appliances on devices to communicate information by electronic means. EITs enhance the performance and productivity on general business activities by performing two functions: 1. Providing coordination and communication within the firm 2. Speeding up transactions with other firms --six of the most widely used innovations in today's digital business systems are as follows:  1. Fax machine (short for facsimile machine): a machine that can quickly transmit and receive a copy of documents/graphics over telephone lines in a matter of seconds (thus permitting written communication over long distances) --popular with both large and small firms because of speed and low cost  2. Voice mail: a computer-based system for receiving and delivering incoming telephone calls. --incoming calls are never missed because a voice responds to the caller, invites a message, and stores it for later retrieval. A company with voice mail networks each employee's phone for receiving, storing, and forwarding calls  3. Electronic mail (or email) system: electronic transmission of letters, reports, and other information (graphics and videos) between computers --email thus substitutes for the flood of paper and telephone calls that threatens to engulf many offices  4. Electronic conferencing: allows people to communicate simultaneously from different locations via telephone, video, or email group software --becoming popular because it eliminates travel and thus saves money. It is also increasingly accessible and speeds up information flows. --one form of electronic conferencing, data conferencing, allows people in remote locations to work simultaneously on the same document. Another form of electronic conferencing, videoconferencing, allows participants to see one another on a video screen while the teleconference is in progress  5. Groupware: a system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PCs --collaborative work by teams other groups is facilitated by groupware—software that connects members of the group for email distribution, electronic meetings, message storing, appointments and schedules, and group writing o Commercial digital information services provide online information for both special-purpose and general topics  Data communication networks: global networks that permit users to send electronic messages back and forth quickly and economically o Networks include the internet (largest public data communications network) and the world wide web  Internet: a gigantic network of networks that serves millions of computers, offers information on business, science, and government, and provides communication flows among more than 170,000 separate networks around the world --allows personal computers in any location to be linked together. The internet has gained in popularity because it is an efficient tool for information retrieval. Because it can transmit information quickly and at low cost, the internet has also become the most important email system in the world o Although individual cannot connect directly to the internet, for small monthly usage fees they can subscribe to the internet via an internet service provider (ISP): a commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to subscribers  World Wide Web (or the web): a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information on the internet --it provided the "common language" that enables us to "surf" the internet and makes the internet available to a general audience, rather than merely to technical users o Uniform resource locator (URL) --example: o Home page—a screen display that welcomes the visitor with a greeting that may include graphics, sound, and visual enhancements introducing the user to the site o Webmaster—person responsible for maintaining an organization's website  Web servers: dedicated workstations—large computers—that are customi
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