106 Pages

Management (MGT)
Course Code
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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A solution = A mixture of two or more different substances where the liquid is completely homogenous. Solvent = The dissolving agent of a solution. Solute = The substance that is dissolved Aqueous solution = a substance in which water is the solvent Ie- Sugar in water- water is solvent and sugar is the solute. Hydration shell = The sphere of water molecules around each ion. - The dissociation of water molecules occurs when a hydrogen atom shared by two water molecules in a hydrogen bond shifts from one molecule to the other. The hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind and a hydrogen ion is transferred. In the end get H+ and OH- - In water concentration of each ion is 10^-7 - This is important as the dissociation of water molecules can change the pH of an animal and its environment.- ie when this balance is disrupted with the adding of other solutes to make the water impure. - Buffers= Enable biological fluids to resist changes to their own pH when acids and bases are introduced. – minimize changes in the concentrations of OH- and H+- the buffer accepts Hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions when they have been depleted. Ie- H2Co3 (most buffers are acid-base pairs) - Variation in carbon skeletons contributes to the diversity of organic molecules.  Hydrocarbons = organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.  Different structures, sizes, branching, rings etc will all determine the nature of the hydrocarbon  ie- Petroleum, needed for fossil fuels.  Store a large amount of energy. - Structural isomers= differ in covalent arrangements of their atoms - Geometric isomers = have the same covalent partnerships but they differ in their spatial arrangements. - Enantiomers = Molecules that are mirror images of each other. – different cells will react differently to such molecules. Ie- one may be a more effective drug than another. Functional Groups. - Functional groups contribute to the molecular diversity of life. - Most commonly involved in chemical reactions. - Most important = - Hydroxyl, OH  Alcohols - Carbonyl, CO  Called an aldehyde or a ketone. - Carboxyl, COOH Carboxylic acids (source of hydrogen ions thus- acidic properties) - amino, NH2 amines
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