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Introduction to Management II - Lecture 003

5 Pages

Management (MGT)
Course Code
Chris Bovaird

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24 January 2013 CHAPTER 3: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Information Managers are the managers responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze, and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions. Information Management is an internal operation that arranges the firm’s information resources to support business performance and outcomes. Data are raw facts and figures, it lacks analysis and content (IE: Mmidterm mark was 78%). Information is a meaningful, useful interpretation of data (IE: My midterm mark was 78%. Class average was 72%. The highest mark was 82%). The challenge for businesses is to turn a flood of data into information and to manage that information to their best advantage. Knowledge is through education and experience, we use information to make decisions (IE: My marks are above average, I’m near top of the class, and I’ll continue my current study habits). Information System (IS) is an organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making through daily reports, scheduling plans, and budgets, a response to this challenge (IE: Input data: text and format commands, process: word processor, output (information): finished document). Example #1 Data: Given US Auto Sales by month. Information: Vehicle sales are lowest in January and highest in April. Knowledge: Auto sales are seasonal and should build cars in the winter and sell cars in the spring. HISTORY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  1850 Electronic Data Transmission – the telegraph and the Morse code allowed the transcontinental rail-lines, and opened trans-continental markets  1876 Electronic Voice Transmission – the telephone allowed electronic transmission of voice information across continents and around the world  1901 Broadcasting – Marconi transmits sound signals from Ireland to Canada, the first trans- Atlantic radio broadcast  200 AD Data Processing – Abacus, a mechanical device for the rapid computation of complex numerical data  C. 1830 Mechanical Computing – Charles Babbage’s “difference engine” which was the first programmable mechanical computer  1946 Electronic Computing – Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) used vacuum tubes (not mechanical devices) to do its calculations, recognized as the first electronic computer. In 1960 the transistors replaced vacuum tubes and in 1970 integrated circuits replaced transistors The volume of data that can be assembled, stored, analysed, shared and used is growing exponentially. BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INFORMATION AGE The widening role of IS results from rapid developments in electronic technologies that allow faster and broader flows of information and communications. The top information technology companies in Canada are: CGI Group Inc, Microsoft Canada Co. And Cognos Inc. Managers began using IS systems not merely to solve technical problems but to analyze management problems, especially for control purposes. Electronic Information Technologies (EIT) is information system applications based on telecommunication technologies. It uses a network of devices to communicate information by electronic means. EIT enhances the performance and productivity of general business activities by providing coordinating and communication within the firm and by speeding up transactions with other firms. Six of the most widely used innovations in today’s digital business systems are:  Fax Machine is a machine that can quickly transmit a copy of documents or graphics over telephone lines. Popular with both large and small firms because of speed and low costs  Voice Mail is a computer based system for receiving and delivering incoming telephone calls  Electronic Mail (E-Mail) System is an electronic transmission of letters, reports, and other information between computers. Email thus substitutes for the flood of paper and telephone calls that threatens to engulf many offices  Electronic Conferences allows people to communicate simultaneously from different locations via telephone, video, or email group software. It is increasingly accessible and speeds up information flow. Data Conferencing allows people in remote locations to work on the same document. Video Conferencing allows participants to see one another on a video screen  Groupware is a system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PCs. This is useful when members work together regularly and rely on intensive information sharing  Commercial Digital Information Services provide online information for both special purpose and general topics, linking information outside a company to its electronic network Data Communication Networks is global networks that permit users to send electronic messages quickly and economically (IE: Internet).  Internet is a gigantic network of networks that serves millions of computers, offers information on business, science, and government, and provides communication flows among more than 170,000 separate networks around the world. It transmits information quickly and at low costs. It was originally developed in 1970s for U.S. research scientists to communicate with each other  Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to subscribers (IE: Prodigy, America Online, Earthlink). The most intensive internet usage is in Malaysia  World Wide Web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information on the internet. “Internet” and “Web” are not synonymous, the web is part of the internet o Web Servers are dedicated workstations, large computers that are customized for managing, maintaining, and supporting websites. o Webmasters are the people responsible for maintaining an organization’s website. o Browser is software that enables a user to access information on the web (IE: Mozilla Firefox) o Directories are features that help people find the content they want on the web. The user types in key words and the directory retrieves a list of websites with titles containing those words (IE: Yahoo!) o Search Engine is software for searching web pages that does not pre-classify them into a directory. It searches for web pages that contain the same words as the user’s search terms and displays addresses for those that come closest to matching  Intranet is a company’s private network that is accessible only to employees via entry through electronic firewalls o Firewalls is hardware and software security systems that ensure that internal computer systems are not accessible to outsiders  Extranet is a network that allows outsiders limited access to a firm’s internal information system. The most common application allows buyers to enter the seller’s system to see which products are available for ale and delivery, providing product availability information quickly to outside buyers Since 1980s the internet,
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