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MGTA02H3 (143)
Lecture

MGTA04 NOTES.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Management (MGT)
Course Code
MGTA02H3
Professor
Chris Bovaird

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Description
MGTA04 NOTES Chapter 1  Service operations: production activities that yield intangible services  Goods production: production activities that yield tangible services  Operations management: the systematic direction and control of the processes that transform resources into finished goods or services  Operations process: a set of methods and technologies used in the production of a good or a service  Analytic process: any production process in which resources are broken down  Synthetic process: any production process in which resources are combined  Goods-manufacturing processes can be classified in two different ways: type of transformation technology and by the analytic or synthetic nature of the transformation process  Walmart: focus on performance: core competency  3 service characteristics: intangibility, customization, and unstorability  Main elements in forecast planning, capacity, location, layout, quality, and methods planning  Operations plan covers 2-5 years  Layout must be planned for 3 different types of space: productive facilities (workstations and equipment for transforming raw materials)  Non productive facilities: storage and maintenance areas  Support facilities: offices, restrooms, parking lots  Process layout: a way of organizing production activities such that equipment and people are grouped together according to their function  Cellular layout: used to produce goods when families of products can follow similar flow paths  Product layout: a way of organizing production activities such that equipment and people are set to produce only one type of good; often use assembly lines  Methods improvement: working to reduce waste, inefficiency and poor performance by examining procedures on a step-by-step basis  Process flow chart identifies the sequence of production activities, movements of materials, and work performed at each stage as the product flows through production  Service flow analysis: an analysis that shows the process flows that are necessary to provide a service to customers; it allows managers to determine which processes are necessary  Master production schedule: schedule showing which products will be produces, when production will take place, and what resources will be used  Gantt chart: production schedule diagramming the steps in a project and specifying the time required for both  PERT charts: program evaluation and review technique is useful for customized projects in which numerous activities must be coordinated; specify the sequence and critical path for performing the steps in a project  Operations control: managers monitor production performance by comparing results with plans and schedules; features material management and production process control  Materials management: planning, organizing, and controlling the flow of materials (logistics) from purchase through distribution of finished goods  Standardization: using the standard and uniform components in the production process  Lead times: the gap between the customer’s placement of an order and the seller’s shipment of merchandise  Supplier selection: finding and determining suppliers to buy from  Just in time production system: method of inventory control in which materials are acquired and put into production just as they are needed  Hands to mouth pattern: placing small orders frequently Chapter 2  Productivity: measure of efficiency that compares how much is produced with resources used to produce it  Quality: a product’s fitness for use in terms of offering the features that consumers want  Labour productivity: partial productivity ratio calculated by dividing gross domestic product by total number of workers  Quality-improvement practices; 4 factors: customers, quality, productivity, and profits  Differences among global competitors: technologies, human skills, economic policies, natural resources and even in traditions  Canada’s competitiveness is a concern because we have been living off our rich diet of natural resources, Canada will have to start emphasizing innovation and develop a more sophisticated mix of products if it hopes to be successful in international markets  Manufacturing productivity is higher than service productivity; it was widely believed that the service sector suffered from “Baumol’s disease” named after economist William Baumol who argued that since the service sector focused more on hands-on activity that machines couldn’t replace, it would be more difficult to increase productivity in services  New technology called continuous casting  Genus: used to manage its forestry operations; computerized database containing geographic information and other essential data about Canfor’s vast lumber and pulp operations in British Columbia, Alberta; used as strategic planning tool  W Edwards Deming: persuaded firms in north America that they needed to improve quality at least as much as quantity – they didn’t listen, but Japanese did  Juran’s quality trilogy: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement  “fishbone diagrams”: “cause and effect diagrams”: “ishikawa diagrams” help teams of employees investigate and track down causes of quality problems in their work areas  Total Quality Management (quality assurance): a concept that emphasizes that no defects are tolerable and that all employees are responsible for maintaining quality standards  Performance quality: the overall degree of quality; how well the features of a product meet consumers’ needs and how well the product performs  Quality reliability: the consistency of quality from unit to unit of a product  John Kay “ you can’t run a successful company if you don’t care about customers and employees, or if you are systematically unpleasant to suppliers”  TQM involves planning, organizing, directing and controlling  Toyota has a reputation for producing very few “lemons”  Quality ownership: the concept that quality belongs to each employee who creates or destroys it in producing a good or service; the idea that all workers must take responsibility for producing a quality product  Business process re-engineering: redesigning of business processes to improve performance, quality and productivity  Supply chain: flow of information, materials, and services that start with raw materials suppliers and continues through other stages in the operations process until the product reaches the end customer  Supply chain management: principle of looking at the chain as a whole to improve the overall flow through the system Chapter 3  Information manager: the manager responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions  Information management: an internal operation that arranges the firm’s information resources to support business performance and outcome  Information system: an organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making  Most businesses regard their information as a private resource  Electronic information technologies: IS applications based on telecommunications technologies  Groupware: system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PCs  Data communication networks: global networks that permit users to send electronic messages quickly and economically  Electronic information technologies enhance the performance and productivity of general business activities by performing 2 functions: providing coordination and communication within the firm, speeding up transactions with other firms (fax machine – facsimile machine- most popular, voice mail, electronic mail, electronic conferencing, groupware)  Internet service provider: a commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to subscribers  World wide web: a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information on the internet  Web servers: dedicated workstations, large computers that are customized for managing, maintaining and supporting websites  Browser: software that enables a user to access information on the web  Directories: features that help people find the content they want on the web. The user types in key words and the directory retrieves a list of websites with titles containing those words  Search engine software for searching webpages that does not pre-classify them into a directory  Intranet: a company’s private network that is accessible only to employees via entry through electronic firewalls  Firewall: hardware and software security systems that ensure that internal computer systems are not accessible to outsiders  Extranet: a network that allows outsides limited access to a firm’s internal information system  Mass-customization: producing large volumes of products or services, but giving customers the choice of features and options they want  Information networks are leading to learner companies with fewer employees and simpler organizational structures  Enterprise resource planning: large information systems for integrating all the activities of a company’s business units  Knowledge workers: employees whose jobs involve the use of information and knowledge as the raw materials of their work  Transaction processing systems: applications of information processing for basic day-to day business transactions  System operations personnel: people who run a company’s computer equipment  Computer aided design (CAD): computer analysis and graphics programs that are used to create new products such as cell phones  Older method – making handcrafted prototypes is replaced with rapid prototyping  Computer aided manufacturing (CAM): computer systems used to design and control all the equipment and tools for producing goods such as hospitals for preparing patients’ meals  Management information systems (MIS): systems that support an organization’s managers by providing daily reports, schedules, plans and budgets  Decision support system: computer systems used to help managers consider alternatives when making decisions on complicated problems  Executive support system: a quick-reference, easy-access application of information systems specially designed for upper-level managers  Artificial intelligence: the construction and/or programming of computers to imitate human thought processes  Exper
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