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MGTA02H3 (143)

Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Management (MGT)
Bill Mc Conkey

Chapter 3: Managing Information Systems and Communication Technology Terms: Information Manager: the manager responsible for the activities needed to generate, analyze, and disseminate information that a company needs to make good decisions Information Management: an internal operation that arranged the firm’s information resources to support business performance and outcomes Data: raw facts and figures Information: a meaningful, useful interpretation of data Information System (IS): an organized method of transforming data into information that can be used for decision making Electronic Information Technologies (EIT): IS applications based on telecommunication technologies Tax Machine: a machine that can quickly transmit a copy of documents or graphics over telephone lines Voice Mail: a computer-based system for receiving and delivering incoming telephone calls Electronic Mail (email) System: electronic transmissions of letters, reports, and other information between computers Electronic Conferencing: allows people to communicate simultaneously from different locations via telephone, video, or email group software Groupware: a system that allows two or more individuals to communicate electronically between desktop PC’s Data Communication Networks: global networks that permit users to send electronic messages quickly and economically Internet: a gigantic network of networks that serves millions of computers, offers information on business, science, and government, and provides communication flows along more than 170,000 separate networks around the world Internet Service Provider (ISP): a commercial firm that maintains a permanent connection to the internet and sells temporary connections to subscribers World Wide Web: a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information on the internet Web Servers: dedicated workstations – large computers – that are customized for managing, maintaining and supporting websites Browser: software that enables a user to access information on the web Directories: features that help people find the content they want on the web. The user types in key words and the directory retrieves a list of websites with titles containing those words Search Engine: software for searching webpages that does not pre-classify them into a directory Intranet: a company’s private network that is accessible only to employees via entry through electronic firewalls Firewall: hardware and software security systems that ensure that internal computer systems are not accessible to outsiders Extranet: a network that allows outsiders limited access to a firm’s internal information system Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): large information systems for integrating all the activities of a company’s business units Knowledge Workers: employees whose jobs involve the use of information and knowledge as the raw materials of their work Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): applications of information processing for basic day-to-day business transactions System Operations Personnel: people who run a company’s computer equipment Computer-aided Design (CAD): computer analysis and graphics programs that are used to create new products Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM): computer systems used to design and control all the equipment and tools for producing goods Management Information Systems: systems that support an organization’s managers by providing daily reports, schedules, plans, and budgets Decision Support System (DSS): computer systems used to help managers consider alternatives when making decisions on complicated problems Executive Support System (ESS): a quick-reference, easy-access application of information systems specially designed for upper-level managers Artificial Intelligence (AI): the construction and/or programming of computers to imitate human thought processes Robotics: the use of computer-controlled machines that perform production tasks Expert System: a form of artificial intelligence in which a program draws on the rules an expert in a given field has laid out to arrive at a solution for a problem Computer Network: a form of computer system architecture in which computers at different locations can function independently but are also interconnected and able to exchange information with one another Hardware: the physical components of a computer system Input Device: hardware that gets data into the computer in a form the computer can understand Central Processing Unit (CPU): hardware in which the actual transforming of data into information takes place, contains the primary storage unit, the control unit, and the arithmetic logic unit Main Memory: the part of a computer’s CPU that stores those programs that it needs to operate Program: any sequence of instructions to a computer Output Device: that part of a computer’s hardware that presents results to users; common forms include printers and video monitors Software: programs that instruct the computer in what to do and how to do it System Program: a program that tells a computer what resources to use and how to use them Application Program: a program that actually processes data according to a particular user’s specific needs Graphical User Interface (GUI): the user-friendly display that helps users select from among the many possible applications of the computer Icons: small images on a computer screen that represent various applications Database: a centralized, organized collection of related data Word-processing Programs: application programs that allow the computer to act as a sophisticated typewriter to store, edit, and print letters and numbers Electronic Spreadsheets: application programs that allow the user to enter categories of data and determine the effect of changes in one category (e.g. sales) on other categories (e.g. profits) Database Management Programs: application programs that keep track of and manipulate the relevant data of a business Computer Graphics Programs: application programs that convert numerical and character data into pictorial forms Presentation Graphics Software: application programs that offer choices for assembling graphics for visual displays, slides, video, and even sound splices for professional presentations Desktop Publishing: combines word processing and graphics capability in producing typeset-quality text from personal computers Software Piracy: the unauthorized use of software such as word processing and spreadsheets Multimedia Communication Systems: connected networks of communication appliances such as taxes, televisions, sound equipment, cellphones, printers, and photocopiers that may also be linked by satellite with other remote networks Wide Area Network (WAN): a system to link computers across the country through telephone w
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