PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion
3) Walter B. Cannon was the founder of American psychophysiology.
- Dealt with emergency response for biological mechanism.
- Injections of adrenaline 79% had no full blown emotional experience.
Two traditions in emotion theory:
1. Cannon is part of centralist approach – brain & brain mechanisms are governing emotions.
Comes from the adaptation model.
o Cortex inhibits emotional expression
o The perception of emotion produces cortical dis-inhibition (inhibitory function fails), and
o Approach focuses on brain mechanisms as the on-off switch for emotional experiences.
2. James is part of peripheral approach – viscera/muscular feedback shape emotional feeling.
Says that emotions are real experiences shaped by feedback from body
4) Peripheral position emotion is affected by your gut, viscera, and musculature.
5) Allport one of the founders of experimental American Social Psychology
- Idea is that different configurations in face
- European view emphasis on whole body; American view emphasis on facial expression.
Our emotion is revealed in our face and entire body posture.
7) Went on to make a career in lie detection.
8) Primary affect list fundamental emotions that everyone has.
Happiness & Sadness are emotions of the face.
Fear & Anger are emotions of the gut
Interest visual engagement (receptive to stimulation) & Disgust is rejecting (non-receptive)
9) Information coming in and out.
10) They argue that emotions are universally functional
- Natural approach wired in and found with evolutionary based.
- Homology – found across species.
11) Emotion is part of experience; are uniquely different; are wired in. Essential to survival.
1. Expression of emotion spontaneously
2. Experience of emotions.
Some people will feel emotion and express on the outside, while others do not express it and feel it
organic. There’s a relationship between expression and bodily responses.
- Cultures with ↑suppression of emotional expression have ↑somatic symptoms.
Emotions help with interactions.
Lower expressive people are better at judging emotion than higher expressive people. Culturally Defined Display Rules:
- Different rules as to what appropriate behaviours are.
- English culture emotional reserve.
- We imagine that we are presenting ourselves in a certain way, and we are monitoring ourselves
to control our behaviour – except we do things unintentionally (e.g. picking nose).
- We think we are in control; but emotion slides out through dimensions you are not aware of.
There’s a Trade-off between controlled channels and uncontrolled channels.
The more honest we are about our emotions, the less likely they will leak out. Display rules and
non-verbal leakage explains that as much as we think we have control, they can come out. THe
more aware we are about our emotional states, the more we can dissolve them
12) Spontaneous versus Posed Facial Expressions:
The more you know yourself emotionally, the more even you can be in those situations.
But we also need to know ourselves expressively expressive or reserved?
Pure Expressions of Emotion and Affect Blends:
The idea of fear, anger, or happiness is not real – we never feel just sad, surprised or angry. There
are no pure facial expressions/experiences of emotions because they have to be functional to the
situation. Certain situations, emotions might be emphasized or not even used. Some may or may
not exist depending on culture.
- Therefore we experience affect blends.
- In reality, there are no pure facial expressions because there are no pure emotional experiences.
o Because we always have blends that depend on the context we are in.
Facial feedback/body sustains emotion given a situation.
Wave face, body and mind work together to create an emotion that is self-sustaining.
13) Dimension Approach
Dimensional view reflects the action theory
The category view believes that individual emotions are real things
Feelings are the shadows o