How can we use the instructional design process to help us solve client problems with media?
• Define the existing target audience
• Often the audience is too broadly defined at first
• Primary and secondary audience
Demographics – General Characteristics:
• Gender • Education • Religious
• Age • Level Preference
• Income • Occupation and • Geographical/Place
• Ethnicity Work Experience of Residence
• Personal Characteristics: • Specific Entry Characteristics:
◦ Maturity Level ◦ Skills, attitudes, aptitudes
◦ Motivation ◦ Previous or current
◦ Expectations/aspirations employment/work experience
• Learners with Disabilities: ◦ Mechanical
◦ Assistive Technologies dexterity/Physical
(Screen Readers) characteristics
◦ Closed Captioning ◦ Other training completed
◦ Universal Design for
• Contextual Analysis:
Learning ◦ Perceived usefulness
• Culturally Diverse Learners: ◦ Perceived accountability
◦ Native Language ◦ Access to apply what they
◦ Cultural Differences learned
◦ Location they will view
◦ Technical specifications
Important to analyze the audience data - do not just list demographic information or factors
• Simultaneous with Needs • Survey or Questionnaire
Assessment collection • 360 Survey
• Census Data • Interview
• Industry Information • Observation • Focus Group
Audience Characteristics – Summary:
• Who they are: ◦ Level of education
◦ Characteristics/ • Where/When:
Demographics ◦ Location/Viewing Situation
◦ Predispositions and ◦ How many?
prejudices • Why they will view:
• What they know: ◦ Motivation
◦ Prior knowledge and skills ◦ Emotional composition
Primary and Secondary:
• Primary audience is the decision makers or the people who will need info/training.
• Secondary audience might also benefit.
Audience Identification - Q & A:
• Who is definitely not your audience?
• Can you group your audience into subgroups?
• Will any of the other groups or subgroups benefit from the communication tool?
• Do any of the other groups or subgroups have influence over the primary audience?
Is it a good fit?:
• Performance: what is the problem? ◦ Will the cost of intervention
• Cause: why is it happening? result in a tangible gain for
• Intervention: how can it be fixed? client?
◦ Does the “how” = • Fit: is it right for 362 Productions?
information or instructional