Chapter 13 lecture notes

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Published on 1 Jun 2011
Management (MGH)
Final Exam Outline
x 4 short questions from after midterm, maybe one from before the midterm (most likely perception)
x a short case and a few questions on that
x Methods of Managing Conflict Æ for sure on the final test
Sources of Conflict
x personality differences
x culture Æ can be national identity or organizational culture
x scarce resources
x group identity Æ self-esteem is over-enhanced and can cause group conflict
x power differences Æ particularly if the power is not equal
Symptoms of Conflict
x winning is important not the greater good (organizations goals)
x hiding information, particularly with group projects
x increased cohesion within each group in a conflict situation
x contact with other parties is reduced Æ communication stops
x aggressive employees emerge as leaders
Methods of Managing Conflict (Assertive vs. Cooperative)
1) Avoiding Æ low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party
need to cool down
if the issue is trivial—forget about it
if the opposite person is powerful and hostile
2) Accommodating Æ cooperation with other party and low assertiveness of one’s own interests
you give in to what the other person is saying
when you are wrong or probably wrong
when the issue is more important to the other party
when you want to build goodwill
3) Competing/Forcing Æ maximizes assertiveness for your position and minimizes cooperation
when you have a lot of power or you are sure of your facts
the situation is critical (win-lose situation)
there is only a short time to resolve the issue
you may not have to interact much with the other party in the future
4) Compromising Æ neither maximizes assertiveness or cooperation
each party gives up something with the expectations of receiving something in exchange
both parties should have equal power
5) Collaboration (Win-Win Situation) Æ maximizes assertiveness for your position and cooperation
best when mutual assistance is high and antagonism is low
best when conflict is not intense and each party has information useful to the other party
takes time to solve
x physiological behaviour and psychological reactions to stressors
x eustress is positive stress
x distress is negative stress
Reactions to Stress
x personality Æ type A versus type B; locus of control; negative affectivity
x type A personalities have more stress versus type B personalities
x people with an external locus of control have greater stress than internal locus of control
x a person with a negative affectivity has greater stress than a person with a positive affectivity
x personality is the main thing that explains reactions to stress
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