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Chapter 5/6 lecture notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Julie Mc Carthy

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Motivation and Job Performance
x lack of skills
x personal problems
x task deadlines
Challenges of Motivating Employees
1) Globalization Æ create competitive pressures
2) New employment relationships Æ changing psychological contract
job security and caring employer—20 years ago
training and development, employability—today
3) Changing workforce Æ managing 4 generations (over 60, baby boomers, generation X, generation Y)
Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
x people are motivated by their lowest fulfilling needs
x people have a hierarchyphysiological needs (basic needs), security needs (physical, job security, psychological
needs), social needs (relationships and friendships at work), self-esteem needs (decision-making, promoting employees,
recognizing employees), self-actualization needs (promoting, challenges, training and development)
x some issues—order of the needs, unique needs of each individual, changing needs over time for each individual
x individuals look for not only one need, but many of the needs at the same time
x instead, of putting it in a hierarchy, put it in a Venn diagram
McClelland’s 4 Drive Theory
1) Drive to acquire Æ object, status
2) Drive to bond Æ relationships, commitments (social needs from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)
3) Drive to learn Æ Maslow’s self-actualization concept
4) Drive to defend Æ physically, socially—belief systems
x innate Æ born with these drives, not things that can be learned
x independent of each other Æ conflicting needs at any point in time
x people who have high EQ (emotional intelligence) can stand back and resolve these conflicting needs
Implications of Needs/Drive Theories
x variable rewards Æ understanding that each employee is motivated differently, so a package of rewards should be
offered to motivate each employee to their best
x learning opportunities Æ appealing to self-actualization needs
x social interaction (parties)
x promotion/recognition award Æ in flatter organizations, most likely to be moved sideways not upwards
Expectancy Theory
x effort Æ performance Æ outcomes
x first-level outcomes—organizational outcomes; second-level outcomes—individual outcomes
x a person will be motivated if there is not only something in it for the organization, but something in it for themselves
1) Set reasonable goals—link between effort and performance
2) Clearly explain how to get the reward—explaining the link between performance and outcome
3) Employees must value the reward—a desirable reward at the outcome
Increasing Effort to Performance
1. Train employees
2. Select the right people
3. Provide role clarification (job descriptions)
4. Coaching and feedback
Increasing Performance to Outcome
1. Measuring performance accurately (e.g., performance reviews)
2. Spell out how the rewards are earned
Goal Setting Theory
x people are motivated to strive and achieve goals
x setting goals for employees can motivate them in the organization
x people strive to reconcile the gap between the current performance and future performance
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