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Lecture 2

MGHB02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Occupational Stress, B. F. Skinner, Operant Conditioning

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Brian Connelly

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January 10, 2017- Lecture 2: Learning and Stress
Learning: any process through which practice or experience at one time
can alter an individual’s behaviour at another time
o Kids learn crying is a good way to get attention
Classical conditioning: occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a
reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already
produces that response
o Pavlov’s dogs
Conditioned dogs to droll when they just hear a bell ring
o Learned associations
o Acquisition: gradual formation of an association between the
conditioning stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
o Extinction: process in which the conditioned response is weakened
when the conditioning stimulus is repeated without the
unconditioned stimulus
o Spontaneous recovery: process b which a previously extinguished
response re-emerges following the presentation of the conditioned
Operant conditioning: occurs when consequences of an action
determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
o Reinforcement and punishment: consequences of an action
increase (or decrease) the likelihood that the action will be
o Designed by BF Skinner
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Observational learning: occurs when behaviours are acquired or modified
following exposure to others performing the behaviour
o Bobo doll experiment
Saw an adult beating up a doll and kids copied after the
adult left
o Attractive, credible, competent, high-status people are most likely
to be imitated
Self Efficacy
o Beliefs about ability to successfully perform the task
Personal beliefs
o Influences
Activities people choose to perform
Effort and persistence devoted
Affective and stress reactions
Job performance
o Through:
Performance mastery
Verbal persuasion and social influence
Others telling you that you can do something increases
your efficacy
Physiological state
Self regulation
o Use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour
o Self-regulation involves:
Collect self-observation data
Observation models
Set goals
o Discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production
Discrepancy between where you are and where you want to
Workplace stress
o Learned response
o Video of office stress
Stuff isn’t going your way
Got frustrated
Lots of equipment was damaged
Took their stress out physically on the object causing stress
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