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Lecture 8

MGHB02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Job Satisfaction, Role Conflict, Trait Theory

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Samantha Hansen

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Leadership: influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an
organizational setting; motivating people and gaining their commitment
Strategic leadership: refers to a leader’s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain
flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable
future for the organization; formal (with title) leadership role is no guarantee that there is
Trait theory of leadership: leaders are born with those traits; predisposed; those who become
leaders and do a good job of it possess a special set of traits that distinguish them from their
followers; leadership depends on personal qualities or traits of the leader
Traits: personal characteristics of individuals such as physical characteristics, intellectual
ability, and personality; associated with demographics (age, gender, education), task
competence, and interpersonal attributes (extraversion); what leaders bring to a group setting
Leadership categorization theory: people are more likely to view somebody as a leader and to
evaluate them as a more effective leader
Behaviour of leaders: actions; how are leaders are made; behaviours we can teach to people and
they can then become leaders
Leader Consideration: extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concern and respect for employees; considerate leader is seen as friendly and expresses
appreciation and support and is protective of group welfare
Leader Initiating structure: degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal
attainment; clearly defines and organizes his/her role and roles of followers, stresses
standard procedures, schedules work to be done, assigns employees to particular tasks
Consequences: consideration/initiating structure contributes to + employee
motivation, job satisfaction and leader effectiveness
Contingent Leader reward behaviour: provides employees with compliments, tangible
benefits, and special treatment; when such rewards are made contingent on performance,
employees increase productivity and job satisfaction; employees have a clear picture of
what is expected of them, and understand positive outcomes that occur if they achieve
those expectations
Contingent Leader punishment behaviour: use of reprimands/unfavourable task
assignments and withholding of raises, promotions and other rewards;
^ both are effective; lead to positive perceptions of justice and lower role ambiguity
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Situational theories of leadership: specific tasks to specific persons; task specific; have to
modify your style to suit that person in that situation; effectiveness of a leadership style is
contingent on the setting
2 dimensions: task focused vs. relationship focused
Depends on: willingness to do the task (motivation/efficacy) and ability to do the tasks (skillset)
Fiedler’s Contingency theory: conditions affect leadership; interaction between person
and situation; association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness depends
on the extent to which the situation is favourable for the exertion of influence;
-Least preferred co-worker (LPC): current or past co-worker; someone
with whom the leader had a difficult time getting the job done; attitude of the
leader toward work relationships
-Argues that LPC score reveals a personality trait that reflects leader’s
motivational structure
-High LPC= relationship oriented
-Low LPC= task oriented; ex. If he’s not good at the job, he’s not good at
House’s Path – goal theory: leader’s job is to help employees achieve their work goals,
and as a result achieve organizational goals; situation under which leader’s behaviours
are most effective; the most important activities of leaders are those that clarify the paths
to various goals of interests to employees
Leader should:
-Determine the outcomes (goals) employees want (ex. Promotion)
-Make these desired goals contingent on performance
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