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Chapter 5 Notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Ted Mock

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Lecture Notes ∙ Chapter Five ∙ Motivation
What is motivation? It is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Effort – motivation reflect the amount of effort. Different types of jobs require different
efforts. The key point is that the effort can vary eg. The same person doing the same task at
different times can use different amounts of effort. Obviously, different people doing the same
task may use different amounts of effort.
This is also the concept of “discretionary effort” – the individual uses his/her own discretion in
choosing the amount of effort that will be used. Since motivation comes from within, effort is
discretionary. Organizations naturally want to increase discretionary effort.
Persistence – consistency of effort
Direction – is effort channeled in a direction that benefits the organization? Working smart as
well as working hard.
Goals – effort and direction are oriented toward achieving a goal or an outcome.
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Are people motivated (persistent effort toward a goal) by factors in the external environment
(pay or supervision) or by something within the person him/her self. The answer is probably
both but it depends upon the worker and the situation.
Intrinsic Motivation – stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task. The
motivation comes from within and may be influenced by the opportunity to do creative work, to
solve challenging tasks, to have autonomy in deciding how the work will be done or by a sense
of accomplishment from achieving goals.
Extrinsic Motivation – stems from the work environment. It usually applied by others.
Herzberg(1959) referred to these as KITA factors (kick in the ass). They may include pay and
The link between motivation and performance
There is not a direct link between motivation and job performance as there are many
intervening variables. A highly motivated employee is not always the best performer and an
employee with average motivation may produce above average results.
The intervening variables may include:
Big Five factors

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Locus of control
General cognitive ability (also called “G” or IQ – intelligence quotient)
Emotional Intelligence (also called EI)
Task understanding (KSA’s – knowledge, skills and abilities)
Chance – luck – random occurrences
General cognitive ability – a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive
resources. It includes verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities that are required to
perform mental tasks. “G” predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in
jobs including both those that require manual and mental tasks. It is a better predictor for jobs
that require higher level cognitive skills and more information processing. In other words, both
motivation and “G” are required for performance.
Emotional Intelligence – ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and
emotions. (Salovey and Mayer, 1990) Their model consists of four interrelated and sequential
1. perception of emotions – perceive and accurately identify one’s own emotions and the
emotions of others. Sources of information might include faces, non-verbal cues, tone of
voice, language
2. integration and assimilation of emotions – use the information from step one in making
decisions. Also includes being able to shift one’s emotions and generate new emotions to
help one see things in different ways
3. knowledge and understanding of emotions – understand how different situations and
event generate different emotions and how others are influenced by different emotions
4. management of emotions – manage one’s own and other’s emotions as well as
emotional relationships eg. Staying calm when you feel upset; being able to excite or
enthuse others; being able to lower another’s anger
There is conflicting evidence in the link between emotional control and job performance. Some
evidence suggests that EI can predict success in jobs that require a high level of EI eg. Police
officer or customer service rep. Recent evidence indicated that the relationship between EI
and “G” is compensatory in the prediction of job performance. In other words, EI is important
for job performance of employees with lower “G” and less important with employees with high
levels of “G”. In other words, higher level of EI can compensate for a lower level of “G”.
What is meant by employee engagement and how is it different from motivation?
Recent survey shows that:
only 17% of employees are highly engaged at work
66% are moderately engaged and

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17% are disengaged
While employee engagement does involve some degree of effort, it has more to do with HOW
individuals perform their jobs
Kahn (1990) defines engagement as the extent to which an individual immerses his or her true
self into their work roles. When people are engaged, they employ and express themselves
physically, cognitively and emotionally during role performances (doing their job). When a
person is disengaged, they remove, withdraw or decouple their true selves from the role.
Engaged employees exhibit a high degree of attention and absorption.
Attention – the amount of time one spends thinking about a role
Absorption – the intensity of one’s focus on the role
Disengaged employees tend to be uninvolved, detached, and distracted from the work.
Contributors to Engagement
Psychological meaningfulness – being engaged and involved makes employee feel
worthwhile, useful and valuable
Psychological safety – the work environment is “safe” – employees can express their true
selves without fear of negative consequences to their self-image, status or career
Psychological availability – employees’ feeling that they have the physical, emotional
and cognitive resources required to engage themselves in a situation (a lot of self-
confidence that you can do what the job requires)
Example → Ted Mock , has all three psychological contributors to engagement, he has
“meaningful” towards to his work, safety and the availability.
There seems to be a positive link between employee engagement and organizational outcomes
such as profitability, productivity, customer satisfaction and lower employee turnover.
Needs Theories: What motivates?
This category of motivational theories specifies the kinds of NEEDS people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy those needs in a way that contributes to
performance. Need theories are associated with WHAT motivates workers.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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