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Chapter 8 Notes

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Ted Mock

of 6
Lecture Notes
Chapter Eight
Chapter Objectives:
Why and how organizations teach values and goals
The impact of this training on attitudes and behaviors
What is strong culture – how are they built and maintained
What are the potential downsides to a strong culture?
Social Influencedependence on others in the organization sets the stage for
Two types of dependence:
Information Dependence
Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel and act
New employees often compare their own thoughts, feelings and actions with
others to check their accuracy (Am I thinking/feeling/acting the right way?)
Effect Dependence
Individuals are dependent upon the effect of their behaviors (consequences) as
determined by the rewards and punishments of others
oThe group has a vested interest in how its members think and act as this
affects the group
oGroup members often desire the approval of the group
Group rewards and punishments include:
Praise, friendship, helping hand, inclusion (rewards)
Nagging, harassment, name calling, social isolation (punishments)
Conformity (with group norms)
Three types of conformity:
Conformity with social norms driven by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid
Member does not really subscribe to the norms (eg. Prisoner)
Conform because they find other supporters of the norm attractive and they
identify with these supporters
May lead to imitation (dress like boss)
Member truly and wholly accepts the beliefs, values and attitudes the underlie
the norms
Conformity is seen as “right” – not because it achieves rewards, avoids
punishments or pleases others
This is conformity due to internal forces rather than external forces
Which types of are most common / most desired in business organizations?
Compliance may lead to dissonance and may arouse tensions. To resolve these
tensions, members may:
Cease conformity or quit the organization
Gradually adopt the beliefs, values and attitudes that support the norms
Socialization – the process by which people learn and accept the norms and roles
that are necessary for the group and the organization
Socialization methods include:
RJP – realistic job preview
Employee orientation
Short term outcomes (proximal) include:
Task mastery
Social integration
P/J fit (person – job)
P/O fit (person – organization)
May include unwanted outcomes such as role conflict and role ambiguity)
Longer term outcomes (distal) include:
Organizational commitment
Organizational identification
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Job satisfaction
Job performance
May include unwanted outcomes such as stress and employee turnover
The Stages of Socialization
Before person becomes a member of the organization
oUniversity business courses
oSummer jobs
oTV / movies
oFriends who already work in firm or industry
oThis information may not be accurate or useful
Occurs once person joins the firm
Orientation, training and other formal and informal socialization methods
Role Management
Fine tuning and actively managing one’s role in the organization
Balancing organizational roles with family roles
Unrealistic Expectations may be caused by:
Occupational stereotypes
Media influences
Over-zealous recruiters (inaccurate or no RJP)
Insufficient or inaccurate information about the job/firm
Psychological Contract
The beliefs and expectations people have when they join organizations as to
what they will receive in return for what they give to the organization
55% of recent MBA recruits felt that their new employer had breached some
aspect of the psychological contract
can be avoided through RJP’s – a balanced and realistic picture of the positive
and negative aspects of a job – given to applicants prior to hire
RJP’s result in higher survival rate of new hires because:
no breach of psychological contract
no big surprises
some candidates self-select out of hiring pool
candidates may create coping strategies to deal with less favourable aspects of
the job (eg. Shifts)
RJP’s reduce turnover and improve job performance of new hires
Employee Orientation – an important socialization strategy
what topics are covered
by whom?
When is it appropriate to cover each topic?
Research shows that effective orientation programs lower employee turnover