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Lecture 3

MGHB02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Human Relations Movement, Job Satisfaction, Perceived Organizational Support

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Brian Connelley

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early OB research: classical viewpoint -> advocate very high degree of specialization of labour and very
high degree of coordination
scientific management: Fedik Talo’s sste fo usig eseah to deteie the optiudegree of
specialization and standardization of work tasks
concerned with job design and structure of work on the shop floor
supported development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures
eouages supeisos to stadadize okes’ ovements & breaks for max efficiency
eteded to supeisos’ jos, adoatig futioal foeaship – supervisors would
specialize in particular functions
Max Weber sa ueaua as a ideal tpe o theoetial odel that ould stadadize ehaiour
in organizations & provide workers with security and sense of purpose
each member reports to a superior
promotion based in impersonal technical skills rather than favouritism
match duties with technical competence
set rules, regulations, procedures ensuring job gets done regardless of who does it
centralization of power on top
Hawthorne Studies: concerned with impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on productivity
noticed psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment
suggest there is dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized
human relations movement: critique of classical management & bureaucracy that
advocated management styles that were more participative & oriented toward employee needs
strict specialization = unsuited for growth & achievement -> lead to employee alienation
big focus on authority -> fail to take advantage of employee ideas -> threaten innovation
strict rules -> employees adopt to minimum performance level -> become norm
strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of overall goals
contingency approach: approach to management that recognizes there is no one best way to manage
and that there exists an appropriate management style depending on the demands of the situation
job performance: is a behaviour, has multiple components (belief + attitude = value)
job attitudes: have many causes; profoundly influential in determining behaviours
3-component model: affective (I want to stay), normative (I should stay), continuance (I have to stay)
job satisfaction determinants: discrepancy, fairness, disposition, mood, and emotion
discrepancy: job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the
outcomes that are perceived to be obtained
distributive fairness: when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve
procedural fairness: when process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable
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interactional fairness: when people feel they received respectful & informative communication about
an outcome
emotions: intense short-lived feelings caused by a particular event
moods: less intense, longer-lived and more diffuse feelings
emotional contagion: tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people
emotional regulation: euieet fo people to ofo to etai displa ules i thei jo i spite
of their true moods or emotions
customer satisfaction: high job satisfaction results in high customer satisfaction and organizational
practical skills: job specifics, knowledge, technical competence
interpersonal skills: interactive skills like communication, teamwork, conflict resolution
intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking, thinking about alternative work processes, and
risk taking
cultural awareness: learning the social norms of organizations, and understanding company goals,
business operations, and company expectations and priorities
classical conditioning: occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is
associated with a stimulus that already produces that response
operant conditioning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve
certain consequences
reinforcement: process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours
positive reinforcement: application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability
of some behavior (food, praise, money, or business success)
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negative reinforcement: removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of
some behavior (shock, nagging, and threat of fines)
punishment: application of an aversive stimulus following some behavior designed to decrease the
probability of that behavior
fast acquisition: continuous and immediate reinforcement reinforcer should be applied every time the
behaviour of interest occurs
extinction: gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement
continuous, immediate reinforcement facilitates fast learning
delayed, partial reinforcement facilitates persistent learning
observational learning: process of observing and imitating the behavior of others (high status people);
learning by observing or imagining others rather than by direct personal experience
self-efficacy: beliefs that people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task
factors that affect self-efficacy: performance mastery, observation, verbal persuasion and social
influence, psychosocial state
self-regulation: use of leaig piiples to egulate oe’s o ehaiou
steps of self-regulation:
oseig oe’s o ehaiou (self-observation)
comparing the behaviour with a standard (self-evaluation)
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