12. 8 define ethics and review the ethical dilemmas that managers and employees face. Ethics: a systematic thinking about the moral consequences of decisions. Stakeholders: people inside and outside the organization who have the potential to be affected by the decision. Honest communication: evaluate subordinate candidly, advertise and label honestly, do not slant proposals to senior management. Fair treatment: pay equitably, do not give reference to suppliers with political connections, do not use lower-level people as scapegoats. Special consideration: the fair treatment standard can be modified for special cases. Fair competition: avoid bribes and kickbacks to obtain business, do not fix prices with competitors. Responsibility to organization: act for the food of the org as a whole. Csr: do not pollute, think about the community impact. Respect the law: legally avoid, taxes, do not bribe government inspectors etc. Gain, role conflict, strong org. identification (unethical activities to help the org. ), competition, personality, organizational and industry culture and whistle-blowing.