Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. It is influence in a way that achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce. Formal leadership positions are expected to influence others and are given the authority to direct others. However, the presence of a formal leadership role does not guarantee that there is. Are leaders born or made? (nature / nurture argument) Traits are personal characteristics of the individual including physical characteristics, intellectual abilities and personality. The following traits have been shown to be associated with effective leadership: Intelligence: energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty/integrity, need for achievement, height (tallness) The following big five characteristics are also associated with leadership: agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience. In addition, effective leaders usually demonstrate a high level of ei. Traits may be necessary pre-condition but do not guarantee success as a leader.