Textbook notes-Chapter 2-Personality and Learning

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10 Aug 2010
personality: the relative stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an
individual interacts with his or her environment
-consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic
predisposition and by ones long term leaning history
- its stable but susceptible to change through adult learning experiences
- culture, religion, external environment, social economic status (how wealthy)
Æ ALL very imp in developing personality
- individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways
- yrs of research proved that personality is a predictor of OB and job performance , thus decrease
in personality research and decline in use of personality tests for selection
- increased, attention to factors in the work environment that might predict and explain ob known
Æ characteristics of organizational settings influence ppls feelings, attitudes and behaviour
- both approaches argued over the imp of disposition vs the situation in what is known as the
- both approaches are imp for predicting and understanding ob
- this led to a third approach `interactionist approachCCRUCCLQWHUDFWLRQLVP´
Æob is a function of both disposition and the situation
the setting in which he or she works (MOST WIDELY accepted and USED)
- weak situation: not clear how a person shuld behave
- strong: clear expectation for appropriate behaviour
- personality has most impact in weak situations cuz of loosely defined roles, few rules, weak
reward and punishment contingencies
- one of the most imp complications is some personality characteristics are useful in certain
organizational situations, no best personality , managers need to appreciate the advantages of
employee diversity
- key concept is fit: putting the right person in the right jobs, groups, or organizations, and
exposing diff employees to diff management styles
- 1 of main problem with early research on personality was he use of inadequate measures of
personality characteristics
- advances in measurement and trends in organizations have reviewed interest and that personality
provides a framework for classifying personality characteristics s into give general dimensions
(much easier to understand and study the role of personality in ob)
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The Five ±Factor model of personality
1) extraversion: this is extent to which a person is outgoing vs shy. High extraverts enjoy social
situations while those low on this dimensions (introverts) avoid them
2) emotional stability/neuroticism: the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional
control. Ppl with high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are self confident and have high self
esteem. Those with lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) tend toward self doubt and
3) agreeableness: the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. More agreeable ppl
are warm and considerate. Less agreeable ppl tend to be cold and aloof
4) conscientiousness: the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented.
More conscientious ppl are dependable and positively motivated. Less conscientious ppl are
5) openness to experience: the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new
ideas . more open ppl tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open ppl favour the status quo
- each of the 5 factors affect each other
- high extraversion was imp for managers and sales ppl and high conscientiousness facilitate
performance for all occupations
- conscientiousness has been found to be the strongest predictor of all the big give dimensions of
overall job performance
- big five is related to other work behaviour : ex. extraverts tend to be absent more often than
- big five also related work motivation and job satisfaction
Æ neuroticism and conscientiousness were the strongest predictors of motivation with the former
being negatively related and the latter being positively related
- job satisfaction: strongest predictor was neuroticism, conscientiousness, extroversion, and to a
lesser extent, agreeableness
- openness to experience was not related to job satisfaction, higher neuroticism was associated
with lower job satisfaction, higher extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness = higher job
- ppl with higher conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability perform
better in teams
- big five also related to job search and career success
- childhood and adult measures of personality measures career success during adulthood over a
period of 50 yrs
- related to vocational interests and preference
- extraversion is related to an enterprising and social vocational orientation and openness to
experience is relate to an artistic and investigative vocational orientation
- always on the go, multitasking
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Locus of Control
Æ a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal of external
- one end of the continuum are high internals who believe that opportunity to control their own
behaviour resides within themselves.
- the other end are high externals who believe that external forces determine their behaviour
- ppl who are high on internal control are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, achieve
higher organizational position, less stress, cope with stress better and engage I more careful career
Self ± monitoring
Æthe extent to which ppl observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and
-high self monitors tend to gravitate toward jobs that require, by their nature, a degree of role
playing and the exercise their self presentation skills
- high monitors tend to be more involved in their jobs, to perform at a higher level, and are more
likely to emerge as leaders BUT more stress and les commitment to their organization
- high self monitoring types would seem to be weak innovators and would have difficulty resisting
social pressure
Æ the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
behavioural plasticity theory: ppl with low self esteem tend to be more susceptible to external
and social influences than those who have high esteem
- opportunity for participation in decision making, autonomy and intersting work have been fairly
consistently found to be positively related to self esteem
- organizations shuld avoid creating a culture with excessive and petty work rules that signal to
employees that they are incompetent or untrustworthy
Recent development in personality and organizational behaviour
1) positive and negative affectivity: the diff (b/w ppl happy or sad all the time) reflect 2 affective
dispositions known as positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectively (NA)
Æ there might be genetic and biological basis to them
positive affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other ppl, in a positive
negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other ppl, in a negative
- these are emotional dispositions that predict ppls general emotional tendencies, they can
influence ppls emotions and mood states at work and influence job attitude and work behaviour
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