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Lecture

Textbook notes-Chapter 3-Perception, Attribution and Judgement of Others

10 Pages
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Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Andrew Davidson

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1
CHAPTER 3 t PERCEPTION, ATTRIBUTION, AND JUDGEMENT OF OTHERS
WHAT IS PERCEPTION
perception: the process of interpreting the messages of or senses to provide order and meaning
to the environment
- help sort out and organize the complex and varied input receive by our senses of sight, smell,
touch , taste and hearing
- key word is interpreting
- ppl often base their action on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system
provides, rather than on reality itself
- some of the most imp perceptions that influence ob are the perceptions that organizational
members have of each other
COMPONENTS OF PERCEPTION
-3 components: perceiver, a target that is being perceived and some situational context in
which the perception is occurring
Æ each of component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target
1) the perceiver
-Z]À[Æ]vUvUvu}]}vv((Z]lZ]}v}(P
- one of the most imp characteristics of the perceiver that influences his/her impression of a
target is experience
- past experiences develop expectations, and affect current perceptions
- often our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we
wish to perceive
- perceivers who have been deprived of food will tend to see more dibble things in ambiguous
pics than well fed ppl
- emotions can influence perceptions
perceptual defence: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against
unpleasant emotions
2) the target
- perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous
targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition
- perceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguities
- ]À}v[}voÁÇµooZ]vfo provided by the target
3) the situation
- every instance of perception occurs in some situation context, and this context can affects
what one perceives
- the most imp effect that the situation can have is to add info about the target
- the perceiver and the target are the same, but the perception of the target changes with the
situation
www.notesolution.com
2
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
- ppl form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social
categories
- our sense of self is composed of a personal identity an a social identity
- our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics, such as interests, abilities,
and traits
- social identity is base on our perception what we belong to various social groups, such as
gender, nationality, religion, occupation ect
- }vov}]o]v]]ZoµvÁ^ÁZ}u/_
- the choice of specific categories depend on what is most salient and appropriate to the
situation
- once a category is coshes, we tend to see members of that category a embodying the most
Ç]o]µ}(ZP}Ç^}}Ç_
- we form perceptions of others based on their membership in social categories, cuz social
identities are relational and comparative
- social identity theory helps us understand how the component of the perceptual system
operate in the formation of perceptions
- we perceive ppl in terms of the attributes and characteristics that we associate with their social
category relative to other categories : your perception of others is a function of how you
categorized yourself and your target
- if the situation changes, so might the categorization and the relation b/w the perceiver and the
target
- ppl tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable
ways than other who are diff and belong to other categories Æ stereotyping and discrimination
A MODEL OF THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
when perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the ingo cues in
the target an the situation surrounding it
- in unfamiliar state, the perceiver really needs info on which to based perceptions of the target
an will actively seek our cues to resolve this ambiguity
- gradually, the perceiver encounters some family cutes, that enable her to make a crude
categorization of the target which follows from social identity theory
- at this pnt the cur search becomes less open and more selective
- the perceiver beings to search out cues that confirms the categorization of the target, as this
categorization becomes stronger, the perceiver actively ignores or even distorts cues that
violates initial perception
- µv[u}ou}vï]uZ]]of the perceptual process
1) perception is selective
- }v[µooZÀ]ooµes, and those they do use give special emphasis
- our perception is efficient and can both aid and hinder our perceptual accuracy
2) our perceptual system works to pain a constant pic of the target
www.notesolution.com
3
- perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way
over time or across situations
3) the perceptual system also creates a consistent pic of the target
- perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a
manner that they fit together to form a homogenous pic of the target
- we strive for consistency in our perception of ppl
- Á}v[v}Zu}v}ZP}}v
BASIC BIASES IN PERSON PERCEPTION
Primary and recency effects
primary effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
- a form of selectivity, and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy
recency effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
Reliance on central traits
central traits: personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a
perceiver
- physical appearance is a common central trait in work settings that is related to a variety of
job related outcomes
- ex taller more attractive ppl are paid more
Inplicit personality theories
Æ personal theories that ppl have about which personality characteristics go together
ex. hardworking ppl are honest
- they provide a basis for misunderstanding
Projection
Æ the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others
- in some cases, projection is an efficient and sensible perceptual strategy
-can also lead to perceptual difficulties
ex. think others are honest when they are not
Stereotyping
Æ the tendency to generalize about ppl in a certain social category and ignore variations among
them
-tendency to generalize about ppl in a social category and ignore variations among them
- categories ppl might base a stereotype include race, age, gender, ethnic bg, social class,
occupation and so on
- language can be easily twisted to turn neutral or even favourable info into a basis for
unfavourable stereotypes
- many stereotypes are inaccurate but they persist cuz
www.notesolution.com

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Description
1 CHAPTER 3 J PERCEPTION, ATTRIBUTION, AND JUDGEMENT OF OTHERS WHAT IS PERCEPTION perception: the process of interpreting the messages of or senses to provide order and meaning to the environment - help sort out and organize the complex and varied input receive by our senses of sight, smell, touch , taste and hearing - key word is interpreting - ppl often base their action on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides, rather than on reality itself - some of the most imp perceptions that influence ob are the perceptions that organizational members have of each other COMPONENTS OF PERCEPTION -3 components: perceiver, a target that is being perceived and some situational context in which the perception is occurring each of component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target 1) the perceiver -Z ]Z[]L 7LZ7LK}]}LZ L Z]ZlZ ]}L}2 - one of the most imp characteristics of the perceiver that influences hisher impression of a target is experience - past experiences develop expectations, and affect current perceptions - often our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive - perceivers who have been deprived of food will tend to see more dibble things in ambiguous pics than well fed ppl - emotions can influence perceptions perceptual defence: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions 2) the target - perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition - perceivers have a need to resolve such ambiguities - ]}ZL[} LoZZooZ]Lfo provided by the target 3) the situation - every instance of perception occurs in some situation context, and this context can affects what one perceives - the most imp effect that the situation can have is to add info about the target - the perceiver and the target are the same, but the perception of the target changes with the situation www.notesolution.com
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