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Textbook notes-Chapter 5-Theories of Work Motivation

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Andrew Davidson

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- need for increased productivity to be globally competitive
- rapid changes that contemporary organizations are undergoing
- tradition systems are being replaced by requirements for flexibility and attention to customers
that necessitate higher levels of initiative , and this initiative depends on motivation
Basic characteristics of motivation
1) effort
- strength of the persons work related behaviour, or the amount of effort the person exhibits on
the job
2) persistence
3) direction : do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organizations?
- correct decision increase the probability that persistent effort is actually translated into
accepted organizational outcomes
4) goals
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
intrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship b/w the worker and the
tasks its usually self applied ex. feeling of achievement
extrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task, its
usually applied by others .
- some motivators can be both
- some study: the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation
stemming from the task itself
- study: negative effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation occurs only under very
limited conditions and theta re easily avoidable
- in organizational settings in which individuals see extrinsic rewards as symbols of success and
as signals of what to do to achieve future rewards, they increase their task performance
Motivation and performance
performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives of the organizations
- intelligence (mental ability) also predict performance
- 2 forms of intelligence imp:
1) general cognitive ability: a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive
resources (intelligence / mental ability)
- reflects a persons an individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing info and includes
a number f cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities that are

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required to performing mental tasks
- usually measured by a number of specific aptitude tests that measure these abilities
- general cognitive ability predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all
kinds of jobs and occupations, including those involving both manual and mental tasks
- general cognitive ability and motivation are required for career success
2) emotional intelligence: the ability to understand and manage one[s own and others feelings
and emotions
- ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason
about emotions, and mange emotions in oneself and others
- ppl with EI are able to identify and recognize the meanings of emotions and to manage and
regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving and reasoning thinking and action
4 interrelated sets of skills or branches
1) the perception of emotions : this involves the ability to perceive emotions and to accurately
identify ones own emotions and the emotions of others
2) the integration and assimilation of emotions: the ability to use and assimilate emotions and
emotional experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and reasoning
- one is able to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions and other cognitive
- being able to shift ones emotions and generate new emotions that can help one to see things
in diff ways and from diff perspectives
3) knowledge and understanding of emotions: bein able to understand emotional info, the
determinants and consequences of emotions and how emotions evolve and change over time
- understand how diff situations and events generate emotions as well as how they and others
are influenced by various emotions
4) management of emotions: ability to manage ones own and others feelings and emotions as
well as emotional relationships
- able to regulate, adjust, and change his/her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit
the situation
- able to perceive emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions and be knowledgeable of and
understand emotions
- EI predicts job and academic performance but some say theres no connection
- strongly related to job performance in jobs that require high levels of EI
- possible for performance to be low even when highly motivated
engagement: the extent to which an individual immerses his/her true self into their work roles.
When ppl are engaged, they employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and
emotionally during role performances
2 imp components
1) attention: amount of time one spends thinking about a role
2) absorption: being engrossed in a role and the intensity of ones focus on his/her role

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1) psychological meaningfulness: when there are incentives for them to engage, they receive a
return on their investment and they feel worthwhile, useful, valuable and not taken for granted
2) psychological safety: they can employ and express themselves without fear or negative
consequences to their self image, status, or career
3) psychological availability: feel they have the physical, emotional, and cognitive resources
required to engage themselves in a situation
need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs ppl have and the conditions
under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to
- needs are psychological and psychological wants or desires that individuals can satisfy by
acquiring certain incentives or achieving particular goals
- needs theories are concerned with WHAT motivates workers
- process theories are concerned with HOW various factors motivate ppl
- need theories are complementary not contradictory
íuo}Á[Z]Zy of needs
Æ a 5 level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest level unsatisfied
need has the greatest motivating potential
Self-Actualisation Ability to grow and develop Interesting or challenging Self-
new and meaningful goals, new projects/challenges, new initiative
Esteem Needs: need for status and recognition as well as need for self-respect. Respect,
Status, Job Title, big office, recognition parking spot, honours
belongingness Needs Love, affection, nice people, sense of Friendship, belonging team,
Friends at Work, sense of belonging
Saftey needs: need for stability and protection from the unknown. Physical and
emotional Job security, health security insurance, Pension plan, cared foe when sick, old,
Physiological needs: needs that are necessary for survival. Food, Water, Shelter Salary or
Æ a 3 level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness growth) that
allows for movement up and down the hierarchy (compression of maslows)
1) existence needs: satisfied by some material substance or condition (physiological and
2) relatedness needs: satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thought and
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