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MGHD27H3 (18)
Lecture

Textbook notes-Chapter 7-Groups and Teamwork

8 Pages
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Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Andrew Davidson

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1
CHAPTER 7 ± GROUPS AND TEAMWORK
WHAT IS A GROUP
group: two or more ppl interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal
- interaction dun need to be face to face or verbal
group memberships imp cuz
1) groups exert a tremendous influence on us , they are the social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs,
values, attitudes, and behaviours
2) groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others
formal group: groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals
- they are intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction
- most common formal group consists of a manager and the employee who report to that manager
- task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems
- committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usually work group structure
informal groups: groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members
Æ they are seldom sanctioned by the organization and their membership often cuts across formal groups
GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Typical stages of group development
1) forming
- group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters
- situation is often ambiguous and members are aware of their dependency on each other
ex. wut are we doing here, what are the others like
2) storming
- conflict emerge
- confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is
developing
- sorting our roles and responsibilities is often at issue
3) norming
- members resolve the issues that provoked the storming and they develop social consensus
- compromise is often necessary
- interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive
- info and opinions flow freely
4) performing
- devotes its energies toward task accomplishment
- achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance are prominent themes
5) adjourning
- rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common
- members often exhibit emotional support for each other
www.notesolution.com
2
2
- the stages model is good for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups are developing but not all groups go
through this
- the process applies mainly to new groups that have never met b4
Punctuated equilibrium
Punctuated equilibrium model: a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are
affected b their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions
- equilibrium means stability and the research revealed apparent stretches of group stability punctuated a critical
first meeting, a midpnt change in group activity, and a rush to task completion
phase 1
- begins with meetings and cts until the midpoint in the groups existence
- first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase
- assumptions approaches, and precedents that members develop end up dominating the first half of the groups
life
- it fathers info and hold meetings, the group makes lil visible progress toward the goal
midpoint transition
- half way towards the deadline , and marks change in the groups approach and how the group manages it is
critical for the group to show progress
- the need to move forward is apparent and the group may seek outside advice
- may consolidate previously acquired info or mark a completely new approach but it crystallizes the groups
activities for phase 2
phase 2
- concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders with evaluate the
product
[ rmb pnts pg 229]
- concept of punctuated equilibrium applies to groups with deadlines
GROUPS STURCUTE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
- group structure refers to the characteristic of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is put
together
Æ size, member diversity, roles, status, cohesiveness
Group size
- smallest group is 2 (manager and employee)
- 300-400 is limit, usually 3-20 members
Size and satisfaction
- larger groups consistently report less satisfaction with group members
- opportunities for friendship increase and the change work on and develop these opportunities might decrease
owing the sheer time and energy requires
- diff viewpnts larger groups prompt conflict and dissension, time for verbal participation decrease
- less easily with the individual success and accomplishment of the group
www.notesolution.com
3
3
Size and performance
additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual
group members
disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member
process losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating
larger groups
- both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and disjunctive tasks
- the net effect is that actual performance increases with the size up to a pnt and then falls
- the avg performance of group members decrease as size gets bigger
- larger groups might perform better than groups but their individual members tend to be less efficient
conjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member
- performance on purely conjunctive task should decrease as group size increase
Diversity of group membership
- more diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive, thus taking
longer to do their forming, storming, and norming
- diverse groups sometimes perform better when the tasks requires cognitive, creativity demanding tasks, and
problems solving
- any negative effects of surface diversity, in age gender, or race sear off over time
Group norms
norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other
- much normative influence is unconscious and we are aware of such influence only in special circumstances
- become conscious with norms when we encounter ones that seem to conflict with each other
norm development
- the most imp function that norms serve is to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour
- the consistency provides imp psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal
disruption
- norms develop to regulate behaviour that are considered at least marginally imp to their supporters
- individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value, their attitudes affect their behaviour
- compliance occur cuz the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes , they save time and prevent social
confusion
typical norms
1) dress norms
2) reward allocation norms:
i)equity: reward according to inputs
ii) equality ± reward everyone equally
iii) reciprocity ± reward ppl the way they reward you
iv) social responsibility ± reward those who truly need the reward
3) performance norms
- function of social expectations as its of inherent ability, personal motivation, or tech
www.notesolution.com

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Description
1 CHAPTER 7 ± GROUPS AND TEAMWORK WHAT IS A GROUP group: two or more ppl interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal - interaction dun need to be face to face or verbal group memberships imp cuz 1) groups exert a tremendous influence on us , they are the social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours 2) groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others formal group: groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals - they are intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction - most common formal group consists of a manager and the employee who report to that manager - task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems - committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usually work group structure informal groups: groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Æ they are seldom sanctioned by the organization and their membership often cuts across formal groups GROUP DEVELOPMENT Typical stages of group development 1) forming - group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters - situation is often ambiguous and members are aware of their dependency on each other ex. wut are we doing here, what are the others like 2) storming - conflict emerge - confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing - sorting our roles and responsibilities is often at issue 3) norming - members resolve the issues that provoked the storming and they develop social consensus - compromise is often necessary - interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive - info and opinions flow freely 4) performing - devotes its energies toward task accomplishment - achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance are prominent themes 5) adjourning - rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common - members often exhibit emotional support for each other 1 www.notesolution.com 2 - the stages model is good for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups are developing but not all groups go through this - the process applies mainly to new groups that have never met b4 Punctuated equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium model: a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected b their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions - equilibrium means stability and the research revealed apparent stretches of group stability punctuated a critical first meeting, a midpnt change in group activity, and a rush to task completion phase 1 - begins with meetings and cts until the midpoint in the groups existence - first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase - assumptions approaches, and precedents that members develop end up dominating the first half of the groups life - it fathers info and hold meetings, the group makes lil visible progress toward the goal midpoint transition - half way towards the deadline , and marks change in the groups approach and how the group manages it is critical for the group to show progress - the need to move forward is apparent and the group may seek outside advice - may consolidate previously acquired info or mark a completely new approach but it crystallizes the groups activities for phase 2 phase 2 - concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders with evaluate the product [ rmb pnts pg 229] - concept of punctuated equilibrium applies to groups with deadlines GROUPS STURCUTE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES - group structure refers to the characteristic of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is put together Æ size, member diversity, roles, status, cohesiveness Group size - smallest group is 2 (manager and employee) - 300-400 is limit, usually 3-20 members Size and satisfaction - larger groups consistently report less satisfaction with group members - opportunities for friendship increase and the change work on and develop these opportunities might decrease owing the sheer time and energy requires - diff viewpnts larger groups prompt conflict and dissension, time for verbal participation decrease - less easily with the individual success and accomplishment of the group 2 www.notesolution.com 3 Size and performance additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member process losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups - both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and disjunctive tasks - the net effect is that actual performance increases with the size up to a pnt and then falls - the avg performance of group members decrease as size gets bigger - larger groups might perform better than groups but their individual members tend to be less efficient conjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member - performance on purely conjunctive task should decrease as group size increase Diversity of group membership - more diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive, thus taking longer to do their forming, storming, and norming - diverse groups sometimes perform better when the tasks requires cognitive, creativity demanding tasks, and problems solving - any negative effects of surface diversity, in age gender, or race sear off over time Group norms norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other - much normative influence is unconscious and we are aware of such influence only in special circumstances - become conscious with norms when we encounter ones that seem to conflict with each other norm development - the most imp function that norms serve is to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour - the consistency provides imp psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption - norms develop to regulate behaviour that are considered at least marginally imp to their supporters - individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value, their attitudes affect their behaviour - compliance occur cuz the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes , they save time and prevent social confusion typical norms 1) dress norms 2) reward allocation norms: i)equity: reward according to inputs ii) equality ± reward everyone equally iii) reciprocity ± reward ppl the way they reward you iv) social responsibility ± reward those who truly need the reward 3) performance norms - function of social expectations as its of inherent ability, personal motivation, or tech 3 www.notesolution.com 4 Roles Æ positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them - development of roles is indicative of the fact that group members might also be required to act diffly from one another - designated or assigned roles are formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and responsibility to facilitate task achievement - assigned roles indicate who does what and who can tell others what to do - emergent roles : those that develop naturally to meet the social emotional needs og groups members or to assist in formal job accomplishment Role ambiguity Æ lack of clarity of job goals or methods 1) organizational factors - some roles inherently ambiguous cuz of their function in the organization 2) role sender - role sender might have unclear expectations of a focal person even when the sender has specific role expectations they might be ineffectively sent to the focal person 3) the focal person - even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digest by the focal person (especially if new to role) - most frequent consequences are job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, lower performance, and intentions to quit - solve this by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback Role conflict Æ a condition of being faced with incompati
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