Textbook notes-Chapter 9-Leadership

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10 Aug 2010
Leadership: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of other sin
an organizational context
- toughness, influence and power
- one trait shared by effective leaders is the ability to drive relentlessly toward a goal even if it
means being intimidating on infuriating
- exert influence in a way that achieves that organizational goal by enhancing the productivity,
innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce
- in theory, any organizational member can exert influence on other members, thus become
- in practice, some members are in a better position to be leaders than others
- ineffective leaders fail to exert any influence on others , thus leadership involves going beyond
formal role requirements to influence others
- informal leadership roles Γ† ξ€š}v[ξ‚šξ€ƒZξ€‚Γ€ξ€žξ€ƒ(}ξ‚Œuoξ€ƒξ€‚Β΅ξ‚šZ}ξ‚Œ]ξ‚šΓ‡UuΒ΅ξ‚ξ‚šξ€ƒξ‚Œξ€žoÇ}vξ€ƒξ€ξ€ž]vPξ€ƒΓξ€žooo]lξ€žξ€šξ€ƒ}ξ‚Œξ€ƒξ€ξ€ž]vP
perceived as highly skilled to exert influence
- traits theories of leadership started gaining imp in 1900
Research on leadership traits
traits: individual characteristics such as physical, attributes, intellectual ability, and personality
- big five: agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience are related to leadership
- most effective leaders have high levels of emotional intelligence and leadership
- emotional intelligence of leaders has also been found to be positively related to the job
satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour of employees
Limitations of trait approach
- its difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity of
leadership produces the traits
- we duno wut dominant or intelligent or tall ppl do to influence others successfully, thus we
duno how to train and develop leaders and duno how to diagnose failures of leadership
- most crucial problem is failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs
- traits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership , they are only a precondition for certain
actions that a leader must take to be successful
- traits approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting
- the limitations is that it gradually promote an interest in wut leaders do in group settings
- of particular interest were the behaviours of certain group members that cause them to
become leaders
- the person to become leaders will be the one that talks the most
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task leader: a leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning
strategy, and dividing labour
- social emotional leader: a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up
disagreement, settling augments and maintain moral
Γ† the person they like the most in the group, less subtle that task manager
- organizations must never appoint 2 formal leaders to a work group, so the leader must be
concerned with juggling the demands of 2 distinct roles
consideration and initiating structure
consideration: the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and
respect for employees
initiating structure: the degree to which a leader concentrate on group goal attainment
- clearly defines and organizes his role and the roles of others, stresses standard procedures,
schedules the work to be done, and assigns employees to particular tasks
- consideration and initiating structure are not incompatible, a leader could be high, low, or avg
on one or both dimensions
The consequences of consideration and structure
- consideration and initiating structure contribute to employee motivation and leader
- consideration is more towards job satisfaction, motivation and leader effectiveness
- initiating structure is towards leader job performance and group performance
- read example pg 303
Leader reward and punishment behaviours
leader reward behaviour: the leaders use of complements. Tangible benefits, and deserves
special treatments
- when rewards are made contingent on performance, employees shuld perform at a high level
and experience job satisfaction
- employees know clearly what is expected from them and they know there will be positive
outcome if they achieve that
leader punishment behaviour: the leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments
and the active withholding of rewards
- contingent reward leader reward behaviour was positively related to employees perceptions
trust in supervisor), attitudes, and behaviour
- contingent punishment was related to employee perceptions, attitudes, and behaviour,
noncontingent punishment behaviour was negatively related
- the key to effective reward and punishment is that it be administered contigent on employee
behaviour and perfroamnce
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- the reason leader reward and punishment behaviour is related to employee attitudes and
behaviour is cuz it leads to more positive perceptions of justice n lower role ambiguity
Situational theories of leadership
- situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur
- the basic premise of situational theories of leadership is that the effectiveness of a leadership
style in contingent on the setting
- the setting includes the characteristics of the employees, the nature of the tasks they are
performing and characteristics of the organization
contingency theory: fred fiedlers theory that states that the association b/w leadership
orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting
- fiedler measured leadership orientation by having leaders describe their lease preferred co-
worker (LPC): a current or past co tworker with whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task
- to obtain an LPC score, the troublesome co-worker is described on 18 scales of the following
- the leader who describes the LPC relatively favourable (a high LPC score) can be considered
relationship oriented
- despite the fact that LPC is or was difficult to work with, the leader can still find positive
qualities in him.her
- ^^¡v(À}Β΅ξ‚Œξ€‚ξ€oξ€žξ€ƒξ€ƒξ€ƒξ€ξ€‚vξ€ƒξ€ξ€žξ€ƒξ€}v]ξ€šξ€žξ‚Œξ€žξ€šξ€ƒξ‚šξ€‚ξ‚l}ξ‚Œ]ξ€žvξ‚šξ€žξ€š
- this person allows the low task competence of the LPC to colour his/her views of the personal
qualities of the LPC (if hes not good, hes not good, period)
- LPC reveals a personality trait that reflects the leaders motivational structure
- high LPC leaders are motivated to maintain interpersonal relationships, while low LPC leaders
are motivated to accomplish the task
Situational favourableness
- ]ξ‚š[ξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚šZξ€žξ€ƒξ€}vξ‚š]vPξ€žvξ€Γ‡ξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ€‚ξ‚Œξ‚šξ€ƒ}(}vξ‚š]vPξ€žvξ€Γ‡ξ€ƒξ‚šZξ€ž}ξ‚ŒΓ‡U]ξ‚šξ€ƒξ‚ξ‚‰ξ€žξ€](]ξ€žξ‚ξ€ƒΓZξ€žvξ€ƒξ€‚ξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ€‚ξ‚Œξ‚š]¡oξ€‚ξ‚Œξ€ƒ>Ws}ξ‚Œ]ξ€žvξ‚šξ€‚ξ‚š]}v
should contribute most to group effectives
- a favourable leadership situation exists when the leader has a high degree of control and when
the results of this control are very predictable
factors that affect situational favourableness
1) leader-member relations: when the relationship b/w the leader and the group member is
good, the leader is in a fav situation to exert influence and vice versa
2) task structure
3) position power
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