Textbook notes-Chapter 10-Communication

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Published on 10 Aug 2010
communication: the process by which info is exchanged b/w a sender and a receiver
interpersonal communication t the exchange of info b/w ppl
- the sender must encode his thoughts into some form that can be transmitted to the receiver
- the receiver must perceive the msg and accurately decode t to achieve accurate understanding
- feedback provides involves another communication episode that tells the original sender that
her assistant received and understood the msg
- the simple communication model is valuable because it points out the complexity of the
communication process and demonstrates a number of points at which errors can occur
- such errors can lead to a lack of correspondence b/w the senders initial thoughts and the
receivers understanding of the intended msg
[ sender] thinking Æ encoding Æ transmitting Æ perceiving Æ decoding Æ understanding
effective communication: the right ppl receive the right information in a timely manner
Communication by strict chain of command
chain of command: lines of authority and formal reporting relationships
3 necessary forms of communication:
downward communication: information that flows from the top of the organization toward the
upward communication: information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the
horizontal communication: information that flows b/w departments or functional units, usually
as a means of coordinating effort
- with a strict chain of command, such communication world flow up to and then down from a
common manager
- a lot of organizational communication does follow the formal lines of authority
- directive and instructions usually pass downward through the chain of command and idea and
suggestions pass upward the reality of organizational communication shows that the formal
chain of command is an incomplete and sometimes ineffective path of communication
Deficiencies in the chain of command
1) informal communication
- informal interaction helps ppl accomplish their jobs more effectively
- but informal grapevine might spread unsavoury, inaccurate rumours across the organizations
2) filtering: the tendency for a msg to be watered down or stopped during transmission
- employees are suppose to filter info but overzealous filtering will preclude the right people
from getting the right information and the organization will suffer
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- upward filtering often occurs because employees are afraid that their boss will use the info
against them
- downward filtering is due to time pressures or simple lack of attention to detail but more
sinister motives may be at work
- info is power, some mangers filter downward communication to maintain an edge on their
- the potential for filtering increases with the number of links in the communication chain
open door policy: the opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a manger
without going through the chain of command
Æ decrease the upward filtering sensitive info if subordinates trust the system
- to prevent downward filtering, many organizations attempt to communicate directly with
potential receivers, bypassing the chain of command
- when the chain of command transmits info faithfully, it can be painfully slow
- the chain of command can be even slower for horizontal communication b/w departments
- its not a good mechanism for reacting quickly to customer problems
- cross functional teams and employee empowerment concepts have been used to improve
- informal communication and the recognition of filtering and time constraints guarantee that
organizations will develop channels of communication beyond the strict chain of command
- one on one exchange of info b/w a boss and an employee
- it represents a key element in upward and downward communication in organizations
- such exchange should enable the boss to instruct the employee in proper task performance,
clarify reward contingencies and provide social emotional support
- it should permit the employees to ask questions about their work role and make suggestions
- perceptions that managers are good communicators tend t bee correlated positively with
organizational performance
How good is manager t employee communication
- the extend to which mangers and employees agree about work related matters and are
sensitive to each others pov is one index of good communication
they differ in their perceptions of the following issues
1) how employees should and do allocate time
2) how long it takes to learn a job
3) the importance employees attach to pay
4) the amount of authority the employee has
5) the employees skills and abilities
6) the employees performance and obstacles to good performance
7) the managers leadership style
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