Chapter 14 Marketing.docx

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17 Apr 2012
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Chapter 14 Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy
Learning Objectives:
1. Define the five promotion mix tools for communicating customer value
2. Discuss the changing communications landscape and the need for integrated marketing
communications
3. Outline the communication process and the steps in developing effective marketing
communications
4. Explain the methods for setting the promotion budget and factors that affect the design
of the promotion mix
The Promotion Mix
Promotion mix (marketing communications mix): the specific blend of promotion tools that the
company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships
Advertising: any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods,
or services by an identified sponsor
Sales promotion: short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product
or service
Personal selling: personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of
making sales and building customer relationship
Public relations: building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining
favourable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading off
unfavourable rumours, stories, and events
Direct marketing: direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to
both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships
Integrated Marketing Communications
The need for integrated marketing communications
Consumers don’t distinguish between message sources, messages from different media
all become part of a single message about the company. Conflicting messages from
these different sources can result in confused company images, brand positions, and
customer relationships
Integrated marketing communications (IMC): carefully integrating and coordinating the
company’s many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling
message about the organization and its products
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A view of the Communication process
There are nine major elements in communication: sender (party sending the
information), encoding (the process of putting thought into symbolic form), message
(the set of symbols that the sender transmit), media (the communications channels
through which the message moves from sender to receiver), decoding (the process by
which the receiver assigns meaning to the symbols encoded by the sender), receiver
(the party receiving the message), response (the reactions of the receiver after being
exposed to the message), feedback (the part of the receiver’s response communicated
back to the sender), noise (the unplanned static or distortion during the communication
process, which results in the receiver getting a different message than the one the
sender intended)
The best messages consist of words and other symbols that are familiar to the receiver
Steps in developing effective marketing communications
1. Identify the target audience
o Starts off with a clear target audience in mind, may be current/potential buyers
2. Determining the communication objectives
o Buyer-readiness stages: the stages consumers normally pass through on their way to
purchase, including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and
purchase
o Even at the final stage, special promotions such as pricing, add-ons, rebates, or
premiums are necessary
3. Designing a message
o Ideally, the message should get attention, hold interest, arouse desire, and obtain
action (AIDA model)
o Message content
There are three types of appeals: rational, emotional, and moral
Rational appeals relate to the audience’s self-interest (i.e. showing quality,
economy, value, or performance
Emotional appeals attempt to stir up either negative or positive emotions
that can motivate purchase (i.e. love, joy, humour, fear, guilt)
Moral appeals are directed to the audience’s sense of what is “right” and
“proper” (i.e. CSR, social initiatives, green)
o Message structure
There are three message structure issues
Should the ad draw a conclusion for the audience? Research shows it’s better
to let the audience
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Whether to present the strongest arguments first or last
Whether to present a one-sided or two-sided argument
o Message format
Needs a strong format; print has colour, shape, message position; radio has
words, sounds, and voices; television has body language; package has texture
4. Choosing Media
o Personal communication channels: channels through which two or more people
communicate directly with each other, including face to face, on the phone, through
mail or email, or even through an internet “chat”
Some are controlled by the company, while some are not (i.e. word of mouth
influence)
Companies can create opinion leaders for their brands people whose
opinions are sought by others
Buzz marketing: cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread
information about a product or service to others in their communities
o Nonpersonal communication channels: media that carry messages without personal
contact or feedback, including major media (i.e. print media, broadcast media),
atmospheres (i.e. designed environments to reinforce learning), and events (i.e.
press conference, exhibits)
5. Selecting the message source
o Messages delivered by highly credible sources are more persuasive
o Marketers use doctors, dentists, celebrities, athletes, and actors
6. Collecting feedback
o This involves asking if the target audience remembers the message, how many times
they saw it, what they remember, how they felt, and their attitudes towards it
Setting the total promotion budget and mix
The nature of each promotional tool
o Advertising this can reach masses of geographically dispersed buyers at a low
cost per exposure. Beyond its reach, consumers tend to view advertised
products as more legitimate. This approach is impersonal and cannot be as
directly persuasive as can personal selling
o Personal selling most effective tool, particularly in building up buyers’
preferences, convictions, and actions
o Sales promotion this tool includes coupons, contests, cents-off deals,
premiums, and others. Sales promotions says, “buy it now”
o Public relations news stories, features, sponsorships, and events seem more
real and believable to readers than ads do
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