MGTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Abraham Maslow, Theory X And Theory Y, Cognitive Dissonance

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18 Dec 2013
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Dec 9- Lecture 12- Motivating Employees
Managers: get you to try hard and care
Last week: Talked about mother-on a Sunday morning. Purpose of the organization
was to get to his grandmother’s house on time, and make a good impression on her,
and to let his grandmother know that she was loved, and that what his mother did in
her capacity as a manager was she planed, organized, led and controlled his
behavior so that he’d be happy to go along with her plan.
Hawthorne Experiment: unintended or surprising consequence. The environment
helps -> office is right temperature, put down carpet, put offices with breaks, nice
views, etc.
Theory X & Theory Y
Douglas McGregor
(1906 1964)
Professor of Management
MIT Sloan School
Author: “The Human Side of Enterprise”
Voted 4th most influential management text of the 20th century
MCGregor didn’t necessarily say you should manage people this way or that way, he
simply pointed out the cognitive dissonance about we set up rules and regulations
that give people power and authority. And they get factious and bullied about it.
Before you discipline somebody, stop, think about what it is you’re supposed to be
doing to get people to try harder.
Theory X:
Work done best in controlled environments
e.g.: “Scientific Management”
Make lots of rules
Assume people are lazy and dumb
Managers can make 1 of 2 assumptions:
Theory X Theory Y
People: People:
are lazy are energetic
lack ambition are ambitious
avoid responsibility seek responsibility
are selfish are selfless
not very bright are intelligent
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Theory X
Most businesses (hierarchies and rules) set up to manage people as Theory X
How loyal, committed, and motivated will that make most people feel?
Theory Y
Businesses hire people based on good credentials, impressive resumes, and positive
references.
In private life: people raise families, volunteer, coach, get further education
They see themselves behaving as Theory Y manage them accordingly
Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow
1908 - 1970
Psychologist
Columbia University
People have a variety of needs
Some needs more basic than others
Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
Everyone needs basic things to survive: food, shelter, clothing
As income, education, health and well-being improve, we want to satisfy less basic
needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Self- Actualisation Ability to grow; develop skills;
Interesting job/challenging job
(What did Michael Jordan do after retiring from basketball? He challenged himself
into joining baseball. Because he though it might be fun. And he loved it. -> ex. of self
actualization)
Esteem Status, respect, honours
Title (chief or captain, or high priest, employee of the month), big office, parking
spot
Social : Love, affection, Friendship,
Friends at Work; belong to team
Security : Physical and, emotional security
Job security, pension, health insurance (once you get too old to work, society will
take care of you)
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