MGTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Human Resource Management, Unemployment Benefits, Job Analysis

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25 Apr 2012
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Human resources management (HRM)is the set of organizational
activities directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce
Strategic importance of HRM
HR are critical for effective organizational functioning
HRM has grown in importance which stems from increased legal
complexities, the recognition that HR are a valuable means for improving productivity
and the awareness today of the costs associated with poor HRM
Managers now realize that the effectiveness of their HR function has a
substantial impact on a firm’s bottom line performance
Poor HR planning can result in spurts of hiring followed by layoffs
costly in terms of unemployment compensation payments, training expenses and morale
Haphazard compensation systems do not attract, keep and motivate good
employees, and outmoded recruitment practices can expose the firm to expensice and
embarrassing legal action
Many firms are developing strategic HR plans that are integrated with
other strategic planning activities
Human resource planning
Starting point in attracting qualified human resources is planningwhich
involves job analysis and forecasting the demand for and supply of labour
Job analysisis a systematic analysis of jobs within an organization.
Made up of two parts
Job descriptionlists the duties of a job, its working conditions
and the tools, materials and equipment used to perform it
Job specificationlists the skills, abilities and other credentials
needed to do the job
Job analysis information used know about job content and job
requirements to develop appropriate selection methods and job relevant
performance appraisal systems and to set equitable compensation rates
Forecasting HR demand and supply
After managers fully understand the jobs to be performed within an
organization, they can start planning for the organization’s future HR needs
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Starts assessing trends in past HR usage, future organizational
plans and general economic trends
A good sales forecast is a startwhich can determine the demand
for types of employees
Forecasting the supply of labour involves two tasks
Forecasting internal supplythe number and type of
employees who will be in the firm at some future date
Forecasting externalthe number and type of people who
will be available for hiring from the labour market at large
The simplest approach would be to adjust present staffing levels
for anticipated turnover and promotions
Larger organizations use sophisticated models to keep track of
present and future distributions of professionals and managers
Replacement chartsan HR technique that lists each important
managerial position, who occupies it, how long he or she will probably stay in it before
moving on, and who (by name( is now qualified or soon will be qualified to move into it
This technique allows ample time to plan developmental
experiences for people identified as potential successors to critical managerial
jobs
Skills inventoriescomputerized systems that contain information on
each employee’s education, skills, work experience and career aspirations
They can quickly locate employees who are qualified to fill a
position requiring certain criteria
Matching HR supply and demandafter comparing future demand and
internal supply, managers can make plans to manage predicted shortfalls or overstaffing
If an organization needs to hire, the external labour supply forecast
helps managers plan how to recruit according to whether the type of person
needed is readily available or scarce in the labour market
Staffing the organization
Once they have decided what positions they need to fill, they must find
and hire individuals who meet the job requirements
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Recruiting human resources
Recruitingis the process of attracting qualified persons to apply for the
jobs that are open
Internal recruitingconsidering present employees as candidates for
openings
Promotion from within can help build morale and keep high
quality employees from leaving
External recruitinginvolves attracting people outside the organization
to apply for jobs
Can include advertising, campus interviews, etc
A manager must select the most appropriate method for each job
Job fairs, internet, etc
Internshipsshort term paid positions where students focus on a specific
projectif they work out well, company often hires the student full time after they
graduate
Selecting human resources
Once there is a pool of applicants, must select someone to hire
The organization can only gather information about factors that are
predictive of future performance
Validationis the process of determining the predictive value of
information
Application formsusually the first step to selectionit is an efficient
method of gathering information about the applicants previous work history, educational
background and other job related demographic data
Usually used informally to decide whether a candidate merits
further evaluation, and interviews use application forms to familiarize themselves
with candidates before interviewing them
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