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Lecture 9

Lecture Note for MGTA03, Lecture 9

7 Pages
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Department
Management (MGT)
Course Code
MGTA01H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Lecture Notes: Chapter 9
x You can waste capital, you can misuse capital
x You can abuse natural resources, you can dump it
x Human resource is the most difficult to manage
x Human resources are not like pennies or nickels or ten dollar bills, they have feelings
x You have to work a little harder to get humans to work ,try , to do stuff
x All management activities should be focused around getting people who work for you to
contribute to what you are trying to do
Motivation
The belief or feeling that causes us to behave in a particular way.
x By calling someone lazy or stupid, it will not motivate them to do somethin
Some Theories and Experiments About
What Motivates People and How to Motivate Them
Classical Theory
Scientific Management
Hawthorn Theory/Experiments
Theory X and Theory Y
Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs"
Herzberg's "Motivation - Hygiene" Theory
Classical Theory of Motivation & Scientific Management
According to "Classical Theory of Motivation"
Workers are motivated solely by money.
Ask yourself: "From my own experience, is this true?"
Not everyone will do stuff for money
If there was a true/false question ³$FFRUGLQJ to Classical theory of Motivation, I
ZRXOGGRDQ\WKLQJIRUPRQH\´)$/6(
www.notesolution.com
Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
Frederick W Taylor(discovered these theories) wanted to improve efficiency of
workers
If Classical Theory is correct (workers motivated only by money)
If workers can produce more, firm can afford to pay them more.
Taylor analysed workers' jobs
Broke each job into simple, separate tasks:
Time and motion studies > industrial engineers > job analysis > specialisation >
repetition
Structure there job in such a way where they were experts in a certain function
Using Fred Taylors theory, productivity went through the roof, but then it decline
again, because it got bored.
- remove all decision making from workers environment
-remove all the creativity from the workers environment
- tell them the exact speed you expect them to work
Step 1: Break down 1 big tasks into MANY little tasks
Step 2: Have many workers each doing one repetitive task
Step 3: Æ You become an expert/efficient at doing one thing well.
6WHS3D\³SLHFH´UDWHV\RXSD\PRUHIRUth then you do 17th piece)
Scientific
Management
1906 1907 1908 1909 1910
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Description
Lecture Notes: Chapter 9 x You can waste capital, you can misuse capital x You can abuse natural resources, you can dump it x Human resource is the most difficult to manage x Human resources are not like pennies or nickels or ten dollar bills, they have feelings x You have to work a little harder to get humans to work ,try , to do stuff x All management activities should be focused around getting people who work for you to contribute to what you are trying to do Motivation The belief or feeling that causes us to behave in a particular way. x By calling someone lazy or stupid, it will not motivate them to do somethin Some Theories and Experiments About What Motivates People and How to Motivate Them Classical Theory Scientific Management Hawthorn Theory/Experiments Theory X and Theory Y Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" Herzberg's "Motivation - Hygiene" Theory Classical Theory of Motivation & Scientific Management According to "Classical Theory of Motivation" Workers are motivated solely by money. Ask yourself: "From my own experience, is this true?" Not everyone will do stuff for money If there was a true/false question ³$FFRUGLQJ to Classical theory of Motivation, I ZRXOGGRDQ\WKLQJIRUPRQH\´)$/6( www.notesolution.com Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Frederick W Taylor(discovered these theories) wanted to improve efficiency of workers If Classical Theory is correct (workers motivated only by money) If workers can produce more, firm can afford to pay them more. Taylor analysed workers' jobs Broke each job into simple, separate tasks: Time and motion studies > industrial engineers > job analysis > specialisation > repetition Structure there job in such a way where they were experts in a certain function Using Fred Taylors theory, productivity went through the roof, but then it decline again, because it got bored. - remove all decision making from workers environment -remove all the creativity from the workers environment - tell them the exact speed you expect them to work Step 1: Break down 1 big tasks into MANY little tasks Step 2: Have many workers each doing one repetitive task Step 3: Æ You become an expert/efficient at doing one thing well. 6WHS3D\³SLHFH´UDWHV\RXSD\PRUHIRUth then you do 17th piece) Scientific Management 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 www.notesolution.com The graph went down again because people got bored with the efficient way of doing things. In theory: removing inefficiencies, minimise waste, productivity should increase introduce repetition and specialisation piece rate system: pay workers for their output. Problem with Scientific Theory people seen as machines(treated them as machines, but they are not) Taylor's experiment: increased productivity in the short term however: increased alienation, boredom, disaffection in long term e.g. flipping Hamburgers( the 100th burger was more interesting than the 400th burgerÆ repetition ,becoming a machine) Hawthorne Studies (1927) Conducted by profs at Harvard If Taylor's research suggests that money isn't only or prime motivator, what does motivate people? Theory: a pleasant environment? Workers affected by the physical environment. Look at physics environment compared to your mood to work. Unattended consequence(surprised) when environment was good or bad the productivity went through the roof. Why? Because the workers felt important when the professors walked around with notepads and checklists. Harvard researchers wanted to determine optimal environment. Experiments at Western Electric Company, Chicago. Researchers turned the lights up: brighter, warmer feeling What do you think happened? People will work harder Researchers turned the lights down: darker, colder feeling What do you think happened? People do not work as hard If people feel they are important they work harder. MBWA ( Management By Walking Around ) www.notesolution.com Treat people like they matter. Hawthorne Effect The tendency for workers' productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention. Theory X and Theory Y - from behavioural sciences Douglas McGregor (1960) - Theory X consistent with Taylor's scientific management. - Workers perform best in highly controlled work environments. - treat people with fear, threats, and punishment - treat people with kindness and promises of rewards Historically how we managed people is that we set up rules. McGregor realized that management is laying out rules and telling them the minimum you have to do , and giving them threats and punishment Æ WKHRU\;7D\ORU¶V6FLHQWLILF0DQDJHPHQW We have all experienced theory x management :K\GRQ¶WPDQDJHUVDVVXPHWKDWZRUNHUVDUHOLNHWKHPWKHRU\\ Theory X Theory Y People are lazy People are energetic People lack ambition and dislike responsibilty People are ambitious and seek responsibility People are self-centred People can be selfless People resist change People want to contribute to growth and change People are gullible and not very bright People are intelligent www.notesolution.com McGregor argued: Most managers behave as though people fall under the description offered by Theory X Whereas, in fact, they perceive themselves and behave according to Theory Y. It is necessary to manage them accordingly. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Maslows Theory= Money + Easy/Simple/Good at it + Environment + Treat people well +theory Y Psychologist Abraham Maslow His theory: People have variety of different needs. Some are universal, i.e. everyone needs food and shelter. Some are useful to motivate those who are already reasonably comfortable. Motivation comes from SEVERAL things. It is not just money, the environment, paying attention to people, how you treat people. People need: enough food, clothes, shelterÆPhysiological Needs Basic wage, salary, dollars (consistent of classical theory of motivation) People need: cared for when sick, old , injured Æ Security Needs Give people pension, health care (benefits) People need: sense of belonging, friends, societyÆ Social Needs Friendly environment, teamwork People need: valued, recognized, promoted Æ Esteem Needs Corner office People need: challengers, new projects, chance to learn new skillsÆ Self-Actualisation New initiative www.notesolution.com Self-Actualisation Ability to grow and develop Interesting or challenging Self-Fulfillment job, new skills Esteem Needs Respect, Status, Job Title, big office, recognition parking spot, honours Social Needs Love, affection, Nice people, sense of Friendship, belonging team, Friends at Work Security needs Physical and emotional Job security, health security insurance, Pension plan Physiological needs Food, Water, Shelter Salary or wage Some assumptions in the model: Some needs are more important than others Everyone needs the things at the bottom - its basic As your income, education, and well being increase: you start to look for the next level on the rung. Maslow's model has come in for criticism: Some argue that human motivation is not as sequential or as structured as the model assumes. Two Factor or Motivation - Hygiene Theory Herzberg was interested in: what people liked about their jobs what they disliked about their jobs Herzberg surveyed engineers and accountants. What they liked What they disliked achievement supervisors recognition working conditions www.notesolution.com the work itself interpersonal relations responsibility pay and security advancement & growth company policies and administration What people like about their jobs is not the opposite of what they dislike. factors which satisfy are not the opposite of factors that dissatisfy. These are not opposite ends of a single continuum, but two separate groups. What they liked: Motivating factors Add to motivating factors to increase satisfaction. What they did not like: Hygiene factors You will never be satisfied. The best you can do is make these acceptable. People will never like supervision, the best you can do is make them neutral, i.e. not dis-satisfied. People will always want more pay, the best you can do is make them not dis-satisfied www.notesolution.comLecture Notes: Chapter 9 N You can waste capital, you can misuse capital N You can abuse natural resources, you can dump it N Human resource is the most difficult to manage N Human resources are not like pennies or nickels or ten dollar bills, they have feelings N You have to work a little harder to get humans to work ,try , to do stuff N All management activities should be focused around getting people who work for you to contribute to what you are trying to do Motivation The belief or feeling that causes us to behave in a particular way. N By calling someone lazy or stupid, it will not motivate them to do somethin Some Theories and Experiments About What Motivates People and How to Motivate Them Classical Theory Scientific Management Hawthorn TheoryExperiments Theory X and Theory Y Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Herzbergs Motivation - Hygiene Theory Classical Theory of Motivation & Scientific Management According to Classical Theory of Motivation Workers are motivated solely by money. Ask yourself: From my own experience, is this true? Not everyone will do stuff for money If there was a truefalse question ..47L3J to Classical theory of Motivation, I Z4:O4,39KL3J1472430 $ www.notesolution.com
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