MGTA 35 Lecture 8: Notes.15
ProfessorHugh Mac Donald
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Resolution and evaluation: Inform and persuade ongoing clean-up, facilitate open discussions,
promotion capabilities of first responders, evaluate and assess responses and communication lessons
Image restoration techniques used: Denial- simple or shifting the blame doesn’t work if blame
shifted inside organisation.
Evading responsibility- Provocation- self-defence, defensibility- the organization lacked information
about or control over important factors, accidents-appealing to factors that cannot be controlled,
Reducing offensiveness- bolstering: relating positive attributes of the organisation or actions it
performed in the past that might mitigate the negative consequences of the crisis. Minimisation: is an
attempt to reduce the amount of negative effects association with the crisis or to convince the public
that the crisis isn’t as bad as it might appear (depends on magnitude of crisis- should avoid minimising
large crises). Differentiation- distinguished an act performed from other similar, but less desirable
actions. Transcendence- places the crisis or actions related to the crisis in a different context that
directs attention to higher values. Attacking the accuser. Offering compensation.
Corrective action- can restore or prevent.
Mortification- admits responsibility for the crisis and asks for forgiveness. Very effective but may avoid
in early stages of crisis because of lack of information and legal liability.
Effectively employing crisis communication strategies-
Use multiple strategies in concert with one another, support all strategies with strong reasoning and
evidence, exercise visible leadership from the highest executives, recognise the limits of persuasive
communication, identify the target audience and select strategies accordingly- Types of audiences:
Animated audience-severity high and responsibility low (avoid denial and shifting the blame-use
bolstering or compensation); antagonistic audience- severity high and responsibility high
(defeasibility, accidents, good intentions good. Most important- corrective action and mortification);
bemused audience- severity low, low responsibility (denial, shifting the blame, attacking the accuser,
minimization good); concerned audience- low severity, high responsibility (no denial but minimization,
bolstering and corrective action. mortification good).
Structure the organizational image briefing-
NAR pattern- Narrative (tell details of crisis in a way beneficial to the organisation), arguments (allows
org. to deploy and support image restoration claims), refutation (allows org. to correct inaccurate
information that affected audiences, regulatory agencies, or the media might have).
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