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Lecture 6

Lecture 6-music and healing gam nots.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Music and Culture

Lecture 6- European Music and Healing  Recap of last week lecture 5 o Lecture 5 about trance and religion o It seems according to statistics that religious people are happier people and healthy people o Prayer- asking for something or thanking for something and how prayer and music and separate or they can be also very much linked together often you can sing or play a prayer there is a music connection with prayer it not just words o Cohen’s HCP- Human Certainty Principle- it means if you believe in something than it would likely work and so what Cohen says is that both in traditional healing ceremonies as well as western medicine often the believe in what your taking or doing is to heal yourself could affect the outcome and the fact that placebo’s work so often if medical trails is so of proof of that, this idea of if you believe in it, it is likely going to work o Cartesian Dualism th  Dualism referring it back to the 17 century going back to René Descartes, who came up with this theory. He started this idea that mind and the body are separate. This is very much part of bio-medicine this idea.  Nothing should be influenced by emotions, things go from simple to complex, we have all these duel ideas.  As opposed to the different view of more traditional people say that we look things as a whole, we look at the mind and the body as a whole we have physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual aspects all combined o Trance it is taught and learned and it is based in culture it’s not just something random  In differ cultures trance is manifested in different ways and in different situations  According to Rouget and his book Music and Trance, there is nothing intrinsic in music that makes us go into trance that the reality is very often music is present when people go into trance o Judith Becker who has written a book called deep listening, she suggest that there is some limited universal regarding trance and how it manifest but there is not general universal. She also talks about Cartesian Dualism and says people who are part of that notion are less likely to sercum from states like trance so in other words perhaps people from the west are less likely going to go into trance to have trance in their culture than those in other cultures like Latin America, Africa and Asia where there is a more holistic approach to things o The prevalence of trance in Muslim culture s and particularly among the Arabs according to Rouget, not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs.  Sufis who are not Arabs many are precisions and from south Asia, there is Sufism which has trance as part of its religion, it’s not something that is outside of it, trance is something that is a formal part of Sufism. Music and dance induce a trance state which is a way of obtaining union or oneness with the divine. o Concept of Tara in Arabic Culture- which is an idea that when somebody performs music it will in trance the audience, so both the performer and the audience would go into this altered state through the power of the music. Example the great Egyptian singer In fur tun, how she improvised around one word for 2 mins and this set the audience in a frenzy and she is also in an alter state. This idea of Tara is really important in Arabic music performance its not just religious related this is insecular performances in concert from, its deeply embedded this notion of music and trance being part of culture o Quwailli- from south Asia, a performance by group of musicians in south Asia (Pakistan and India), its sufi music, these musicians are heredity and they sing and perform on instruments like the harmonium or dole or the table and there is hand clapping. Worshippers come to hear this music and every year they come to listen to this music in honor of the death anniversary of their saint and this is called Urs, people come in dance and they get into trance.  This is a way of healing and symbolic healing- people are not necessary ill in are way of looking at it they don’t have a broken leg or cancer something like that they go to become healthy to feel better to feel good and it’s a very cathartic music and trance o In Tajikistan  Very little conventional medical services available it’s a very poor country  They have this performance called Maddah, its devotional poetry and music  Similar to Quwaili- it uses poems from the great Persian poet Rumi and it leads to ones to God. There is also the important notion of spiritual powers called Baraka which is also found in both Quwaili and Tajikistan. By internalizing Baraka a patient can be healed. Maddah not all vocal music there is some instrumental music like the frame drum, the spiked fiddled and the lute type instrument  Ancient Greece o Since ancient times music has been important and has been recorded as important in healing in European World th o Long before the beginning of MT as a profession in the west which is only in the 20 century, physicians, musicians and priests have all used music for curing process curing illness o In ancient Greece Apollo was the God of music and medicine there is a link already o Ancient Greece (AG)- said that music is an art that has power that can penetrate into the depths of the soul o Pythagoras a.k.a father of music therapy. HE taught his students how certain musical cords, and melodies produce specific response in the human organisms  Ex the right sequence of sounds played on an instrument could change the behavior patterns and accelerate the healing process however we have to be careful because nothing is written down about it, it has been passed down by mouth from one generation to the other o Plato- music is a moral law and it gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, a charm to sadness, deity and life for everything. It is the essence of order and leads to all that is good, just and beautiful of which it is the invisible but the dazzling and passionate……  The republic – in this book he talks about the individual modes and the importance of younger generation to listen to only the good ones for example he considered the Dorian mode was good it was steady and manly and the Phrygian mode was exciting and emotional  Each mode was set to have a particular characteristic  He said that playing of certain types of music and lead to harmonization with the divine  If you have bad music this can lead to anguish and violence  Music here is seen to exercise control over human beings, over animals and the elements of nature. For these reasons he emphasized great caution in the use of music and music is very powerful seen in protest and to support and promote  AG first Europeans to have used music as systemic as a vehicle of therapy o Muzik und Medizin  Music and medicine  The main scholarly work that documents the inter-relatedness between music and medicine in European History after the Greeks right up to 1800  This book made a strong case for the continuity and the significance of musical healing in the pre-modern before the 16-17 century  Continuity meaning that is has always existed in some form  Music was really important in the western medicine  Many doctors suggested music as a way of healing and curing for patients health  And preventing or curing health  The book represents the history of music as a remedy for many illness and conditions  Mental and physical illness  Music could also be used for as an relaxation method- like in the bath  Music used to bleed patients in the olden days to help ease the pain  Music used for childbirth and part of general self-regulation  One note of caution the book demonstrates the evidence is mostly theoretical, ideological and philosophical and rather than about actuality and facts that happened because there is no records during these times  Music is not only recommended but also wine or women  Music was never part of formal education in universities but it was part of the study of liberal arts until the 18 century and in order to get a medical degree you needed courses from liberal arts o Renaissance  Re-birth of classical traditions from AG  Brought back the traditions of AG  Re-discover of Orpheus  A mythical figure  Playing the lyre  Shows the power of music through the natural and supernatural worlds  Things that Pythagoras discovered in regards to music such as the sacredness of numbers and the foundation of the musical scale were said to be brought by Orpheus and were adopted and formulated them by Pythagoras (cycle of fifths)  Orpheus the greatest singer and musician in the Ancient world, he had incredible power over the nature and the soul  Lyre that he played was gift from Apollo the god of music and harmony  Marsilo Ficino o Ficino translated the complete works of Plato o He shared a great affinity towards Orpheus and many of his attributes and he started to identify with Orpheus
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