*Condensed!* - NROB60 Lecture 1

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Janelle Leboutillier

NROB60 []  Indicate slide # INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE – LECTURE 1 COURSE MECHANICS NROB60, LEC01 - Not everything is covered in lecture, though still responsible for everything in text unless explicitly excluded. [3] - NEUROSCIENCE - interdisciplinary approach => many disciplines are involved with study of neuroscience [4] WHY CAN WE USE ANIMAL MODELS? - Because NS of diff. species evolved from COMMON ANCESTOR, and so may have common mechanisms with them - Downside: many behavl. traits highly specialized for envirnmt (niche) that species normally inhabits - ex. vision - study owl that has highly distinct visual skills (can see mice); vis. sys can be adapted to its envirnmt - can look at animals that're different by their specializations, and also look at what is similar - look at mchsms in common, and also those that're diff. [5] SHEEP BRAIN Why is this brain, in particular, being used in the course? - Large: sheep > rat in size - Accessible: can get from sci companies; safe to work w/ - Not human: issues w/ human brains, ethics involved - Has many structures in common with human: many structures similar to that of humans (ex. same terminology) - Less cost: less expensive than trying to get other brains [6-7] GROSS FEATURES: THE DORSAL SURFACE, THE CEREBELLUM, THE BRAIN STEM - This slide just has images taken out from Appendix. [8] NEUROSCIENCE TODAY Reductionist approach - Levels of Analysis: 1) Molecular, 2) Cellular, 3) Systems, 4) Behavioural and 5) Cognitive Example of Levels of Analysis: Learning & Memory Suppose you did work on rat subjects that involved changing genes MOLECULAR: alter genes in particular type of mouse CELLULAR: cellular changes that happen due to genetic manipulation SYSTEMS: did the treatment alter the visual system in any manner, comparing experimental units to controls? BEHAVIOURAL: suppose the chance in genes caused a decrease in learning & memory; do the experimental units perform differentially when doing tasks when compared to control? COGNITIVE - is the mutation that we are working w/ (ie. change in genes) resemble one seen in humans as well, that would perhaps give hint to how our unique processes fcn? (ex. the mind?) Implications - working w/ a non-human subj. and trying to make links w/ humans - can use models to try to understand more about ourselves [9] NEUROSCIENCE TODAY (outline slide) -> EDUCATION, TRAINING, RESEARCH EXPERIENCE -> CLINICAL VS. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH [10] TABLE 1.1 (from textbook) MEDICAL SPECIALISTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM - clinical specialists - one particular medical specialist need not have to be M.D. - Neuropathologist - M.D. or Ph.D - trained to recog. changes in nervous tissue that're due to disease. [11] TABLE 1.2 TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSCIENTISTS Some notes about certain experimental neuroscientists - comp neuroscientists: make simulations of brain fcns - dvpmtl neurobiologists: look at dvpmt, how does brain change over time - molecular neurobgist: modify, change neural structure by making changes to genetic material. - neuroanatomist - focus: NS structure - psychophysicist: looks at perceptual abilities [12] NEUROSCIENCE TODAY (outline slide) SCIENTIFIC PROCESS - OBSERVATION - REPLICATION - INTERPRETATION - VERIFICATION [*] [13] THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS (detailed notes for each process) OBSERVATION - process of looking, seeing what
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