NROB60 - Chapter 7.doc

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Janelle Leboutillier

NROB60 – Chapter 7 Function Follows Structure → Early observations of structure led to interpretations about function (removing a part of the brain and seeing how they behave) → Constantly refined as new data is available → Advances in technology and in knowledge Lissencephalic – flat, smooth surface, no sulcus or gyri ie. Rats brain Gyrencephalic – has gyri and sulcus Understanding CNS Structure Through Development  Special Features of the Human CNS  Similarities in rat and human brain  Basic arrangement of various structures  Differences  Convolutions on human cerebrum surface called sulci and gyri  Lissencephalic (rat) and Gyrencelphalic (human)  Size of olfactory bulb  Growth of cerebral hemisphere: Temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital Gross Organization Pg 207  Rostral-most part is the Cerebrum  Hemispheres are separated by a deep SAGITTTAL FISSURE The Cerebrum Pg 209  Largest part of the brain  Clearly split down the middle into two cerebral hemispheres  Generally the right hemisphere receives sensations from, and controls movement of the left side of the body and vice versa  Contra-lateral – cross over brain controlling The Lobes Fig 7.22  Everyone has a similar general pattern  Bumps: gyri and Grooves: sulci & fissures  Used to separate portion of the brain into lobes 3 Species Comparison Fig 7.27 • Lobes are in similar area • The bigger the area the more dependant the animal is to that area The cerebellum (little brain) • ipsalateral control – same side • Lies behind the cerebrum • Contains as many neurons as both cerebral hemispheres combined • Primarily a movement control center • Extensive connections to cerebrum and spinal cord • Left side controls the left side; right side controls the right Basal(ventral) View of the Human Brain (Pg214 has the view) Anatomical References • For bipeds (humans), an almost 90 degrees bend in the axis at position of the brain means that the brain has different positional references than the spinal cord • Anterior/Rostral • Posterior/Caudal • Top/Up/Dorsal • Bottom/Down/Ventral • Bilateral Symmetry • Midline/Medial • Lateral/Ipsilateral /Contralateral Major Components of the Nervous System and Their Functional Relationships • CNS (brain and spinal cord) • PNS cranial nerves and spina
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